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Lower Body

Muscles of the lower extremity and lower part of trunk

MUSCLEORIGININSERTIONINNERVATIONACTION(S)
Rectus Abdominis Pubic symphysis & pubic crest Xiphoid process and 5-7 costal cartilage N/A (rec) Flexes trunk (lumbar) and compress abdominal viscera; stabilizes and controls pelvis tilt
Pyramidalis Anterior surface of pubis and anterior pubic ligament Linea alba N/A (pyr) Tenses linea alba
Serratus posterior superior Lower part of ligamentum nuchae & spinous processes of C7-T2/3 2nd-5th ribs First 3 or 4 intercostal nerves Assists in elevating ribs, increasing size of thorax
Serratus posterior inferior T11 - L2 spinous processes 9th - 12th ribs 9th - 12th intercostal nerves Draws lower ribs downwards to enlarge thoracic cavity & stabilize ribs against pull of diaphragm
Splenius capitis Lower half of ligamentum nuchae & spinous process of C7 & T1-T3/4 Mastoid process and occipital bone Dorsal rami of middle & inferior cervical spinal nerves Unilateral: rotates head and cervical spine towards same side of the muscle Bilateral: assist in extension of head and neck
Splenius cervicis Spinous processes of T3 - T6 Transverse processes of C1 & C2-C4 Dorsal rami of middle & inferior cervical spinal nerves Unilateral: rotates head and cervical spine toward same side of the muscle Bilateral: assist in extension of head and neck
Erector spinae Posterior surface of sacrum, iliac crest, and spinous processes of T11 - L5 Split into subgroups - next Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Extends thoracic vertebral column
1. Iliocostalis lumborum Iliac crest and sacrum Slips into lower 6/7 ribs Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Extends thoracic vertebral column
1. Iliocostalis thoracis Upper border of lower 6/7 ribs (medial to IL insertion) Lower borders of upper 6 ribs Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Extends thoracic vertebral column
1. Iliocostalis cervicis Angles of upper 6 ribs (medial to IT insertion) Transverse processes of C4-C6 Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Extends thoracic vertebral column
2. Longissimus thoracis Common tendon of erector spinae Lower 9 or 10 ribs and adjacent transverse processes Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Extends thoracic vertebral column
2. Longissimus cervicis Transverse processes of T1 - T4/6 Transverse processes of C2-C6 Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Extends thoracic vertebral column
2. Longissimus capitis Medial to superior end of cervicis Mastoid process (lateral) Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Extends thoracic vertebral column
3. Spinalis thoracis Common tendon and spinous processes of T11 - L2 Upper thoracic spinous processes (T1 - T4) Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Extends thoracic vertebral column
3. Spinalis cervicis Ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes of C7 - T1/2 Spinous processes of axis (maybe 3/4) Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Extends thoracic vertebral column
3. Spinalis capitis Not a separate muscle - medial part of the semispinalis capitis N/A N/A N/A
Transversospinalis Muscles (TM): Semispinalis capitis Transverse processes of T1-T6/7 and articular process of lower cervical vertebrae Occipital bone N/A(sem cap) Extend head (keep head upright)
TM: Semispinalis cervicis Transverse processes of T1-T5/6 Spinous processes of C2-C5 (mostly C2) N/A (sem cer) Extend spine
TM: Semispinalis thoracis Transverse processes of T7 - T12 Spinous processes of C6 - T4 N/A (sem tho) Extend spine
Deep to semispinalis muscles Sacrum and transverse processes of lumbar to lower cervical vertebrae Spinous processes of lumbar vertebrae to C2 N/A (deep) Bilaterally: extend spine Unilaterally: rotate spine towards opposite side and lateral flexion
Rotatores (Rotators) Single transverse process Singles spinous process N/A (rot) Rotate and extend spine
Anterior group of leg N/A N/A Femoral nerve Flexion at hip and extension at knee
Medial/Adductor group of leg N/A N/A Obturator nerve Adduction and flexion of thigh
Posterior group of leg N/A N/A Sciatic nerve Extension at hip and flexion at knee
Ant: Sartorius ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine) Medial surface of shaft of tibia (below tibial tuberosity) Femoral nerve Flexion at the hip, flexion at the knee, lateral rotation of thigh & (abduction of thigh)
Ant: Tensor fascia lata Iliac crest Iliotibial tract Superior gluteal nerve Assist in flexion of thigh at hip and medially rotates thigh as it flexes (occurs during locomotion - swing phase)
Ant: Rectus femoris Anterior inferior iliac spine and ilium above acetabulum Upon patella and through patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity Femoral nerve Extension of leg at knee, only quadriceps to cross hip joint and so it flexes thigh at hip too
Ant: Vastus medialis Medial lip of linea aspera (posterior) and lower part of intertochanteric line (anterior) Patella (pulls through patellar ligament) Femoral nerve Extend the leg at the knee
Ant: Vastus lateralis Lateral lip of linea aspera (posterior) and intertochanteric line (anterior) Patella (pulls though patellar ligament) Femoral nerve Extend the leg at the knee
Ant: Vastus intermedialis Anterior and lateral surface of femur shaft Patella (pulls through patellar ligament) Femoral nerve Extend the leg at the knee
Ant: Articularis genus Distal part of anterior femoral surface Upper part of synovial membrane of knee joint Nerve to vastus intermedius Draws synovial membrane upwards as leg extends (to prevent it from getting pinched in between the two bones)
Ant: Psoas major Anteriolateral aspect of lumbar vertebral bodies and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae Lesser trochanter (medial surface of thigh) L2-L4 ventral rami Strong flexor at hip
Ant: Iliacus Inner surface of ilium Lesser trochanter (medial surface of thigh) Femoral nerve Strong flexor at hip
Med: Pectineus Superior ramis of pubis Femur below lesser trochanter Usually femoral, sometimes obturator Flex and adduct thight at hip (during swing phase, helps keeps leg in line - natural to step medially)
Med: Adductor longus Pubic tubercle Medial lip of linea aspera Obturator nerve Adducts and flexes thigh
Med: Adductor brevis Body and inferior ramus of pubis Lower part of line between lesser trochanter and linea aspera & upper portion of linea aspera Obturator nerve Flex and adduct thigh
Med: Adductor magnus Inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium, and ischial tuberosity Entire length of the linea aspera, adductor tubercle (from ischial tuberosity) Anterior oblique fibres: obturator nerve (posterior branch) and straight posterior fibres: sciatic nerve Adduct thigh (primary adductor - MAGnificent), anterior oblique fibres flex thigh, straight posterior fibres extend thigh
Med: Gracilis Inferior ramus of pubis of ischium Medial surface of proximal end of tibia (close to sartorius and semitendinosus) Obturator nerve Adduct thigh and flex leg
Med: Obturator externus Outer surface of pelvis, around obturator foramen, and obturator membrane Medial side of greater trochanter (posterior to hip joint) Obturator nerve Laterally rotate thigh
Glut: Gluteus maximus Sacrum, dorsal sacroiliac ligaments, small area of ilium, & sacrotuberous ligament Lateral portion of fascia lata, iliotibial tract & gluteal tuberosity Inferior gluteal nerve Powerfully extend the thighm lateral rotation of thigh abduct thigh & adduct thigh
Glut: Gluteus medius major part of upper lateral surface of wing of ilium and covering fascia Greater trochanter of the femur Superior gluteal nerve Strong abductor of the thigh, (anterior fibres) flex & medial rotation of thigh, (posterior fibres) extend & laterally rotate thigh
Glut: Gluteus minimus Lower part of lateral wing of ilium Greater trochanter Superior gluteal nerve Strong abductor of thigh, medially rotate thigh (flexion of thigh)
Glut: Piriformis Pelvic surface of sacrum Inner surface of superior part of greater trochanter Branches of S1 (S2) ventral rami Laterally rotate thigh, abductor when flexed
Glut: Obturator Internus Inner surface if pelvis (obturator membrane and edges if obturator foramen) Medial surface of greater trochanter above fossa Nerve to obturator internus lateral rotation og thigh abducts thigh when flexed (same as piriformis)
Glut: Gemellus superior Ischial spine Upper border of obturator internus Nerve to obturator internus Lateral rotation of thigh, abducts thigh when flexed (same as piriformis and obturator internus)
Glut: Gemellus inferior Ischial tuberosity Lower border of obturator internus Nerve to quadratus femoris Lateral rotation of thigh, abducts thigh when flexed (same as piriformis and obturator internus)
Glut: Quadratus femoris Ischial tuberosity Posterior surface of femur between greater and lesser trochanter Nerve to quadratus femoris Lateral rotation of thigh and adducts thigh (minor role)
Post: Semitendinosus Ischial tuberosity Medial side of tibia, inferior to tibial tuberosity Tibial part of sciatic nerve extends thigh at hip, flexes leg at knee and medially rotates flexed leg
Post: Semimembranosus Lateral aspect of ischial tuberosity Posteriomedial aspect of medial tibial condyle Tibial part of sciatic nerve Extends thigh at hip, flexes leg at knee, and medially rotates flexed leg
Post: Biceps femoris (long head) ischial tuberosity, (short head) lateral lip of linea aspera Posteriolateral aspect of knee joint onto head of fibula Sciatic nerve (tibial to long head and common fibular to short head) Flex leg at the knee, laterally rotate flexed knee, tilt the pelvis posteriorly, (long head) extend thigh at hip and assist to laterally rotate it
Posterior of superficial muscle in calf: Gastrocnemius Posterior surface of femur (proximal to medial and lateral condyles) Lower part of projecting portion of calcaneus as calcaneal tendon Tibial nerve Powerful plantar flexor of foot (helps flex leg when not supporting weight), resists dorsiflexion during weight bearing and keeps leg in extension
PoS: Soleus (one head) soleal line across upper 1/3 and posterior surface of tibia & middle 1/3 of medial border, (other head) proximal 1/3 of posterior surface of fibula (there is no attachment between the tibia and the fibula that's why it has 2 heads) Anterior surface of calcaneal tendon Tibial nerve Plantar flexion of foot (& can do this with bent knee - gastroc cannot), during stance prevents dorsiflexion
PoS: Plantaris Lateral epicondyle of femur above lateral gastrocnemius Calcaneus (anteriomedial to calcaneal tendon) Branch of tibial nerve Flexion of leg at knee and plantar fexion of foot (weak at both, b/c the muscle belly is very small)
PoDeep: Popliteus Lateral condyle of femur in knee joint capsule Proximal 1/3 of posterior surface of tibia Branch of tibial nerve Medial rotation of leg on femur, prevents, forwrad sliding of femur on tibia when knee is flexed
PoD: Flexor hallucis longus Lateral side of middle 1/2 of posterior aspect of fibula Distal phalanx of the big toe Tibial nerve Flexes big toe (weak plantar flexor - anything that crosses the posterior side is considered this)
PoD: Tibialis posterior Proximal 2/3 of the lateral side of the posterior shaft of the tibia, promixal 2/3 of the medial side of the posterior shaft of the fibular, posterior aspect of the interosseus membrane Navicular & to bases of the 2nd - 4th metatarsals Tibial nerve Adduct front of foot (aids in inversion and plantar flexion)
PoD: Flexor digitorum longus Medial 1/3 of the posterior aspect of the tibia Distal phalanges of 4 lateral digits Tibial nerve Flex distal phalanges of 4 lateral toes, weak plantar flexor, assists with inversion and adduction
Ant of leg: Tibialis anterior Lateral condyle and proximal 2/3 of surface of tibia, deep fascia of the leg, and interosseus membrane (quite deep to the bone) Medial cuneiform bone and base of 1st metatarsal Deep fibular nerve Strong inverter and dorsiflexor of the leg
Ant of leg: Extensor digitorum longus Lateral condyle of tibia, proximal 3/4 anterior surface of fibula, interosseus membrane, and crural fascia Middle phalanx & two distal slips onto distal phalanx Deep fibular nerve Extend toesm dorsiflexes foot weak everter of foot
Ant of leg: Extensor hallucis longus Middle 1/3 of anterior surface of fibular and adjacent interosseus membrane distal phalanx of big toe Deep fibular nerve Extend big toe (weak dorsiflexor and inverter of foot)
Ant of leg: Fibularis tertius Fibula Dorsal surface of base of 5th metatarsal Deep fibular nerve Everts and dorsiflexes foot
Lat: Fibularis longus Proximal 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula, surrounding fascia & intermuscular septa Base of 1st metatarsal Superficial fibular nerve Everts the foot, weak plantar flexor
Lat: Fibularis brevis Distal 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula & adjacent intermuscular septa Dorsal part of base of 5th metatarsal Superificial fibular nerve Everts foot, weak plantar flexor
External Oblique External surface of 5-12 ribs Linea alba, pubic tubercle, and anterior iliac crest N/A (ex) Assists in torsional rotations of trunk (twist trunk relative to hips)
Internal Oblique Thoracolumbar fascia, anterior 2/3 of iliac crest, & connective tissue of lateral 2.3 of inguinal ligament Inferior border of 10-12 ribs (last 3), linea alba, and pecten pubis N/A (in) Compress and support abdominal viscera, flex & rotate trunk
Transverse Abdominis Internal costal cartilage, ribs 7-12, thoracolumbar facia, iliac crest, & lateral 1/3 inguinal ligament deep connective tissue Linea alba & internal oblique aponeurosis, pubic crest, & pecten pubis N/A (tran) Compress contents of abdomen & increase intra-abdominal pressure
Created by: 531188962