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Ancient Greek Civ.

WH 9; test 12/16/14

city state an independent city and the surrounding area it controls
monarchy a government ruled by one person, usually a king or queen
philosopher one who loves knowledge philo-love sophy-wisdom
Plato Student of Socrates wrote dialogues about justice, virtue, government, and education Believed people should do the work that they are best suited for Believed an aristocracy of merit should rule
Minoan On the island of Crete; features colorful frescoes, was wealthy through trade, homes of nobles, homes of nobles had running water with copper plumbing, and had unfortified cities.
Xerxes Persian king; Son of Darius; invades Greece to avenge his father's death and prove his worth; his army had 70,000-300,000 men
Antikythera mechanism a device found on a shipwreck of the coast of Antikythera that could predict lunar/solar eclipses, function as a calculator, display the sun and moon's position in the sky, and align the lunar month with the years.
bicameral a legislative body that has two branches or chambers
Thermopylae Battle of Thermopylae was held here. battle lasted for 3 days between 1,000 Greeks and 20,000 Persians until a Greek Shepherd betrayed the Greeks by telling the Persian where a mountain pass was so the Persian Army could surround the Greek army.
Peloponnesian League A defensive alliance headed by Sparta that was made up mostly of western Greece. This means it could only be used if one participant is attacked.
Primary source a document or similar artifact that was made by someone who actually experienced an event or lived in a time period; a fossilized remain of something that existed in that time period
-polis a Greek suffix meaning city-state
aristocracy government in which power is held by nobility
citizen a legally recognized subject or national of a state or commonwealth, either native or naturalized
Aristotle Student of Plato Was educated at Plato's academy in Athens scientist and philosopher studied virtually everything Tutored Alexander the Great
Minotaur Bull of Minos mino-Minos tauros-bull
Thera A small island where a volcano was located; the volcano blew up in 1646 BC that caused a tidal wave to hit Crete and ultimately led to the conquering of Crete
peninsula a piece of land almost surrounded by water or projecting out into a body of water
Homer a Greek author; he wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey
Herodotus "Father of History" The first historian to collect his materials with a system and arrange them in a historiographic narrative
jury trial a trial to determine if someone is innocent or guilty of a crime; the jury is usually made up of 12 citizens of the accused's peers Innocence or guilt is determined by voting
secondary source books written about an event/time period, anything about an event or time period made by someone who was not actually there
acropolis a hill or mountain within a city state that has temples and public building built on it
democracy a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives
Golden Age of Greece 500 to 300 BC; sometimes called The Age of Pericles It occurred because of the Greek victory over Persia
Socrates Believed people should think for themselves "Socratic Method:" Teaching through questioning distrusted Athenian democracy was tried for denying the existence of Greek gods and corrupting the minds of Athenian youth. condemned to death by suicide
besiege verb: surround (a place) with armed forces in order to capture it or force its surrender; lay siege to
dark age prevailing ignorance and barbarism, but there were forces for culture and enlightenment throughout the period
polytheism believing in more than one god; Greek religion
isthmus a narrow strip of land with sea on either side, forming a link between two larger areas of land
Mycenaeans 1600 BC; settled in the Peloponnese; they were called the Poloponesians Conquered the Minoans in Crete
Oracle a direct link between the Gods and the people; typically a woman who would sit above noxious fumes and consume hallucinogenic leaves in order to enter a trance-like state and "talk" to the gods
ostracism exclusion from a society or group
The Odyssey The sequel to the Iliad that is about Odysseus's journey back to Ithaca Odysseus angered the gods who caused him to have difficulties getting back to Ithaca
The Illiad A book by Homer on the Trojan War
bill a proposed law
Pericles Pericles was arguably the most prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age, specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars
siege noun: a military operation in which enemy forces surround a town or building, cutting off essential supplies, with the aim of compelling the surrender of those inside
Hippocrates physician in the Golden Age; one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine referred to as the "father of western medicine" because of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine
Darius King of Persia; related to Cyrus
Peloponnesian The peninsula that Greece is on
Dorians 1200 BC: illiterate people who invaded Greece from the north began the Greek Dark Age; 1200 BC to 750 BC
Delphi an important religious area; where the most famous Oracle is located
Pythia The head Oracle at Delphi, the priestess of Apollo; also called the Delphic Circle
polytheism belief in more than one god; what the Greeks believed in
Trojan War a war that occurred between Greece and Troy after Helen, queen of Sparta, was taken by her lover, Paris of Troy; a Greek victory 1194–1184 BC Modern dating: between 1260 and 1240 BC
Philosophy the study of the most fundamental questions of human existence
Knossus was discovered by Sir Arthur Evans; it was the legendary palace of King Minos
Destruction of Minoan civilization a volcanic eruption on Thera in 1628 B.C. caused a massive tidal wave to hit Crete; the Minoans were weakened but not killed. Mycenaeans took advantage of this by conquering Crete.
sovereign There is no higher power; you answer to no one but yourself
direct democracy The citizens vote directly on bills
Representative democracy citizens vote for representatives who make and approve laws
Greek Dark Age 1100–800 BC) used to refer to the period of Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC, to the first signs of the Greek polis in the 9th century BC.
What were three ways that geography affected the development of Greek civilization? Thin, rocky soil caused Greeks to have to grow things like grapes and olives that were compatible with the soil; mountain ranges provided some protection, the long, irregular coast provided good harbors for sailing, fishing, and trading (had good Navy)
What were the causes and effects of the Persian Wars? Causes: Ionian revolt against Persia; allied with Athens and Erelria This was Darius's way of punishing Erleria, Athens, and Ionia The Greek Golden Age happened because of this
What was the Peloponnesian War? The war between the Delian League (eastern Greece) and the Peloponnesian League (western Greece). Pelop. league was a defensive alliance formed when Athens took over Delian league and got greedy. Pelop. war started when Athens tried to take over Megara
What were the effects of the Peloponnesian War? Athenian empire was dissolved Golden Age of Greece ended Greek city states were weakened with the exception of Sparta
Why did Plato oppose Athenian democracy? Athens did not allow women to rule and chose lawmakers randomly.
What qualities did Plato think lawmakers should possess? he believed everyone should think for him or herself, people of merit should rule, wise people should rule, and that all people were equal.
Describe the Athenian legislative process using these terms: Assembly, Council of 500 The Council of 500 proposes a bill for the Ecclesia to vote on and the Ecclesia, or Assembly, makes it a law
Greek assembly Ecclesia; adult male citizens who voted on all laws and met about 40 times a year
Council of 500 50 people from each tribe (ten tribes) who were chosen randomly to propose legislation to the Ecclesia
In what ways was Athens not truly Democratic? only adult male citizens got to vote and there was public voting,
theocracy a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god
monarchy a form of government with a monarch at the head; ruled by one person, usually a king or queen
hereditary aristocracy A privileged, primarily hereditary ruling class, or a form of government controlled by such an elite; society ruled by one and only one family
Why is the era immediately after the Persian Wars called the Golden Age of Greece? What is the evidence for this being the golden age? Greek fine arts, literature, economy, intelligence, and trade went up. It happened because of the Greek victory over Persia.
Describe Greek religion polytheistic, or believing in multiple gods. Each god was assigned an object or thing that he or she made possible. People spoke to Oracles of a certain god to figure out what to do. The god depended on the question at hand (ex: Athena for war)
In what ways was Athens superior to other city states? Athenians had more freedom and more power in making laws, their navy was very good, the mountains provided protection, the people in Athens were very intelligent
legislation noun; laws
legislative adjective; the power to make laws
legislate verb; to make laws
legislator noun; lawmaker
legislature noun; a group of lawmakers (legislators)
What are the characteristics of Greek sculpture? each one was perfectly proportion and the bodies were idealized; made of marble or bronze
Why is Alexander the Great considered such an influential figure in world history? he brought the Greek and Middle Eastern civilizations closer together; this allowed the cultures to mix and produced some traditions that are still practiced today
Athenian democracy every adult male citizen has the power to make/vote on laws, the people vote directly on laws, there are 3 steps to making a law (council of 500 proposes a bill for the Ecclesia to vote on and the Ecclesia makes it a law)
U.S. democracy Citizens over 18 have the power to vote on the people who make laws, there are 4 steps in the legislative process (bill proposed in the House or Senate and is approved, goes to the other branch and approved, goes to the president to be signed or vetoed)
Created by: namelyme001