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Hist 190 Final-Part1

Final exam prep part 1

QuestionAnswer
What are the five relationships outlined by Confucius? Father-son (filial piety) Ruler-subject Elder-younger Husband-wife Friend-friend
What are the Confucianism seven core virtues? Humaneness Filial piety Righteousness Being true Trust Respect Propriety
When did Confucius live and who was he? Lived from 551-479 BCE. A Chinese teacher, editor, politician and benefactor, and philosopher. His ideas, written in the analects, became the basis for Confucianism. Lead through policies and regulate through punishments led by virtue.
Confucian beliefs on being a learner: One must someday be one who understands what is wanted in the heart. One must get better every day. One must do a self-reflection daily. One must always engage in other people -- one must also learn from others.
Confucian belief on Learning: One learns about how to be human, and this knowledge is acquired on a continuous basis. Learning is a life-long experience. “Practice makes perfect.”
Confucian belief on governing: Let a leader be a leader, a subject be a subject, a parent be a parent…
What are the Analects? A loosely organized compilation of saying attributed to Confucius by his followers. They are meant to convey perspectives of one who has experienced many stages of life; encapsulation of human existence and a guide to life.
Who is Mencius? He lived from c. 370-300 BCE He wrote the book The Mencius elaborating on the analects Believed humans to be inherently/fundamentally good. proposed political & financial measures for easing tax burdens
Who is Xunzi? Lived from cc. 298-238 BCE. And official and a teacher, he had a great influence on the Xin Worked for the gov't for many years-had great influence Mencius' rival Believed humans to be inherently evil. Believed the state to be supreme.
Who is Laozi? Considered the founder of Daoism “The Way” Daoist text which contained many stories. Founder of philosophical taoism Thought that people would be better off if they knew less, and stopped envying
What is the Dao De Jing (daodejing) (book)? Written by master Lao ("Taoist Bible") when going over border Do not assert yourself to be higher up: You will have more power when you are silent. people would be better off if they knew less, and stopped envying. 2nd most read after the Bible.
Taoism: Explain first way of nature/the cosmos Patterns in nature; Water flows from high ground to low Essentially, everything is unknown…. Nature has a beautiful flow we as humans can not understand. Nature and the Cosmos are beautiful place, but only a small portion belongs to humans.
Explain second way of the human being Way to farm; Way to live harmoniously Wanting to be faithful to nature: towns and cities should be built near water. It is bad to become too separated from nature and over-reliant on technology
Explain third 3 way of peace Human language expresses thought and emotion Language, though arbitrary, is a means for humans to express thought and live together in harmony.
Who was Zhuangzi? Lived around 4th c. BCE. probably the author of “Book of Zhuangzi,” (or at least the 7 inner chapters) one of two key Daoist texts. Its main themes are of spontaneity in action and freedom from the human world and its conventions
What was the most famous story of Zhuangzi? Zhuangzi and the butterfly
Who is King Ashoka? Indian prince that used his technology to spread Buddhism--built a lot of monuments of the Buddha “one of the greatest rulers in history” First major supporter of Buddhism as a ruler in India. Also endorsed and accepted it
Who is Gautama (Buddha)? The original Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama Originally from the Sakya clan in Northern India responsible for the creation of Buddhism and the Buddhist nuns order
What is karma (in Hinduism)? Moral compass that affects true-self. Kind actions bring good, hateful actions bring. Women are __cally inferior by nature. It affects rebirth in the next life. Ultimate goal not to be part of highest class, but free from endless cycle
What is nirvana? Enlightenment in Buddhism achieved through meditation.Described as the extinguishing of the fires that cause suffering. Suffering comes from attachment, aversion, and ignorance
What is bodhisattva? Someone who has achieved spiritual enlightenment, but chooses to stay on earth to help other achieve enlightenment as well.
What is legalism? Tight regulations and laws to control lands Political theorists laws designed to constrain the common people, and the officials Kept officials from getting greedy with their freedoms
Created by: anonymous10