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GastroIntestinal Review

What are rugae? folds in the stomach; secretes hydrochloric acid and enzymes
What are the accessory organs of the GI system? liver, gallbladder, pancreas
What are the four divisions of the colon? ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
What are the functions of the Liver? Produce bile; Remove glucose from blood; Store vitamins B12, A, D, E, AND K; Destroy or transform toxic products; Maintain glucose levels; Destroy old RBCs; Synthesize proteins that circulate in the blood
What are the three main components of the large intestine? cecum (1st 2-3"); Colon (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid); rectum
What are the 3main parts of the stomach? Fundas (upper portion); body (large central portion); pylorus (funnel-shaped portion)
What are the 2 structures that form the roof of the mouth? hard and soft palate
what is the medical term for the mouth? oral cavity
What is another name for the GI Tract? alimentary canal
What are villi? microscopic, finger-like projections in the small intestine (absorb nutrients)
Where does peristalsis occur? from the pharynx to the anus
Where is digestion completed? small intestine
What is a volvolus? A life-threatening obstruction in which the bowel twists on itself
What are hemorrhoids? Enlarged veins in the mucous membrane of the anal canal
What causes Hepatitis A? Ingestion of contaminated food, water or milk
What is diverticulosis? Small, blister-like pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine
What is ulcerative colitis? Chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum
Where are ulcers commonly found? stomach and duodenum
Where do inguinal hernias develop? In the groin where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs
Which large intestine disorder is associated with a higher risk of colon cancer? Ulcerative colitis
Ba Barium
BaE, BE Barium Enema
BM Bowel Movement
BMI Body Mass Index
CF Cystic Fibrosis
CT Computed Tomography
EGD EsophagoGastroDuodenoscopy
ERCP Endoscopic Retrograde CholangioPancreatography
GB GallBladder
GERD GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease
GI GastroIntestinal
HBV Hepatitis B Virus
IBS Irritable Bowel Syndrome
LFT Liver Function Tests
PE Physical Examination
PMH Past Medical History
PUD Peptic Ulcer Disease
R/O Rule Out
RGB Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
STAT immediately
ulcer A lesion of the skin or mucous membrane which frequently develops in the duodenum or stomach
occult blood A test in which stool samples are collected to determine gastrointestinal bleeding
ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
hernia Abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through the structures that normally contain it
deglutition Act of swallowing
gall bladder An organ below the liver which stores and empties bile through its ducts into the small intestine
pancreas An organ which uses ducts to provide exocrine secretions to the duodenum to aid in digestion
regurgitation Backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
mastication Chewing
fecalith Fecal concretion
cecum First 2-3" of the large intestine
ascending colon First portion of the colon, extending from the lower border of the liver
cholelithiasis Formation of gallstones
flatus Gas in the GI tract
ulcerative colitis Inflammation and ulceration of the innermost lining of the colon
diverticulitis Inflammation of a sac-like bulge that may develop in the wall of the large intestine
stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth of (or?) the stomach
anorexia Lack of or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
rectum Last portion of the GI tract
ileum Lower division of the small intestine
serum bilirubin Measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
halitosis Offensive or "bad" breath
proctologist One who specializes in diseases of the colon, rectum and anus
Melena Passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
steatorrhea Passage of fat in large amounts in the feces
celiac Pertaining to the abdomen
buccal Pertaining to the cheek
lithotripsy Procedure for crushing a strone
eructation Producing gas from the stomach
peristalsis Progressive, wave-like movement
upper GI series Radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine
lower GI series Radiographic examination of the rectum and colon
cholecystography(/gram) Radiographic record of the gallbladder
borborygmus Rumbling or gurgling stomach noises, that are audible at a distance
cirrhosis Scarring and dysfunction of the liver
jejunum Second division of the small intestine
transverse colon Second portion of the colon that passes horizontally across the abdomen toward the spleen
obstipation Severe constipation
pyloric stenosis Stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter
enterostomy Surgical formation of an opening from the small intestine through the abdominal wall
ileostomy Surgical formation of an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall
cheiloplasty Surgical repair of the lip
aerophagia Swallowing air
liver The largest glandular organ
diarrhea The passage of unformed, watery bowel movements
ingest To eat
hematemesis Vomiting of blood
malabsorption When nutrients are digested but are not taken in by the intestinal tissues
(oral) leukoplakia White patches that form on the tongue, lips or cheek
Created by: deyoht_kwa



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