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KMC CH 17: Fr Rev

KMC CH 17: The French Revolution and Napoleon

Date of French Revolution 1789
Causes of social and economic unrest in 18th century France The monarchy's extravagant lifestyle & costly wars had created a huge national debt; The bourgeoisie & nobility had exempted themselves from paying taxes; Farmers & urban workers protested inflation, low wages & a huge tax burden
Three estates of ancien regime Clergy, Nobility, Commoners
Bourgeoisie French upper middle class composed mostly of wealthy bankers, merchants and lawyers
Louis XVI King who was seized at Versailles & later guillotined
Why Estates General was convened To fix the debt & for each estate to further its own interests
Abbe Sieyes In his pamphlet, "What is the Third Estate?" he equated France with ONLY the Third Estate
Major points of the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen" All men are born equal, and all men have the right to liberty, property, security & resistance
Assignats French bonds which redistributed the Church's lands
"The Civil Constitution of the Clergy" Legislation passed by the Legislative Assembly in order to establish the Gallican Church, seize Church lands, make priests puppets of the state, & disband monasteries & convents
Constitutional clerics Supported "The Civil Constitution of the Clergy"
Non-jurors Opposed "The Civil Constitution of the Clergy"
Reign of Terror Time when France was ruled by the Committee of Public Safety, which executed those who disagreed with them
Effects of the Reign of Terror on the Church The Church was labeled as counter-revolutionary & the government tried to systematically dismantle it; relics were destroyed, crosses & churches burned; priests who refused to take the oath of loyalty to the state were killed
Maximilien Robespierre Cruel leader who headed the Committee of Public Safety, and the architect of the Cult of the Supreme Being
State-sponsored Deistic religion Mass was replaced with a "Goddess of Reason" ceremony; Notre Dame Cathedral was renamed the "Temple of Reason & Liberty"; the Lord's Day was eliminated by instituting a 10-day week; the Church of St. Genevieve was replaced with pantheon of rev'y leaders
How Napoleon sought to repress the Church He confiscated the Papal States, took the Pope prisoner for six years, falsely published the Concordat of Fountainebleu, closed seminaries, & stole from the Church
Pius VII Progressive thinker who desired liberty & equality among the lower class; he was imprisoned for 6 years by Napoleon
Napoleonic Code Provided for freedom of religion, but also introduced civil marriage & divorce & placed heavy restrictions on the Church
"Black cardinals" Those who refused to attend Napoleon's illicit marriage to Maria Louisa
Created by: MAGISTRA56



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