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Key Content/Core Terms

Islam the religious faith of Muslims; also the civilization based on the Islamic religion and the group of countries where Islam is the main religion
monotheism the belief in a single God; Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all monotheistic
Muhammad a man born around 570 C.E. who taught the faith of Islam; considered to be Islam's most important prophet
Muslim a follower of the Islamic faith
polytheism belief in more than one god
prophet a person who speaks or interprets the words of God
The Five Pillars of Islam he most basic acts of worship for Muslims: declaration of faith, prayer, charity, fasting, and making a pilgrimage to Makkah
jihad Muslims’ struggle with challenges within themselves and the world as they strive to please God
mosque a Muslim house of worship
Qur'an the holy book of the religion of Islam; Muslims believe it contains the revelations made to Muhammad by Allah (God)
Ramadan the ninth month of the Islamic calendar during which Muslims are required to fast
shari’ah the body of Islamic law based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah
Sunnah holy book which tells the example that Muhammad set for Muslims about how to live
evolution the slow process of change in plants and animals from simpler forms to more complex forms
caligraphy the art of beautiful writing as practiced in Islamic art and literature
anti-semitism hostility or discrimination against Jews
Crusades a series of religious wars launched by European Christians to reclaim Jerusalem and other holy sites from Muslims
Holy Land the area between Egypt and Syria that was the ancient homeland of Jews and the place where Jesus Christ had lived; also called Palestine
Inquisition a judicial body established by the Roman Catholic Church to combat forms of religious error; Muslims and Jews were often tortured as a result of the Inquisition in Spain
segregation the forced separation of one group from the rest of a community
shahs a ruler in certain Middle East lands, especially Persia (modern-day Iran)
caliph the civil and religious ruler of a Muslim state
Salah al-din (Saladin) military (sulton) leader who united Muslims to fight Christian crusaders in Palestine in 12th century
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Persian physician, scholar, and philosopher His works on Greek philosophy and medicine were translated into Latin
hajj part of the Fifth Pillar of Islam; pilgrimage to Muslim sacred place in Makkah; many rituals including circling the Ka’ba seven times
A Thousand and One Nights a collection of Arabian, Persian, and Indian folk tales Includes stories about Aladdin and Ali Baba
Arabian peninsula peninsula in southwest Asia between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf; the birthplace of Islam; includes Muslim holy city of Makkah
Pope Urban II Pope who called for the first crusade to reclaim jJeruslaem
King Richard I (England) leader of 3rd Crusade; nicked name the "Lionhearted" fought against Salah al-Din; captured and held for ransom
Genghis Khan leader and founder of the Mongol Empire;
Created by: Franceschini