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SS 6


when did Egyptian farm communities grow along the Nile River in Africa 4000 B.C.
Fertile Crescent region in Western Asia, crescent shaped, covers present day countries of Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Israel, much of the land was rocky mountains or dessert but parts of fertile crescent were lush and green
what made life in the fertile crescent possible two rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, this affected the people living along the banks
why was living along the banks of the Tigris and the Euphrates river similar to living along the Nile the water gave them fertile soil and water, silt deposit, flooding
what is the region between the Tigris and the Euphrates called Mesopotamia
what does Mesopotamia mean in greek land between two rivers
what is Mesopotamia known as today Iraq
where do both the Tigris and the Euphrates river begin in the snow-capped Taurus Mountains what is today Turkey
the rivers rush down to where the plateau of present-day northern Iraq
plateau area of elevated flatland
where do the rivers flow in southern Iraq to lower land and make their way to the Persian Gulf
what did early communities in Mesopotamia depend on the river depositing silt
why did the communities want silt to make the land good for farming
what challenges did early farmers meet flooding
what was different about the flooding in Mesopotamia compared to Egypt the floods in Mesopotamia did not come as regularly and usually at the wrong time
when did the Tigris and Euphrates river flood not during planting season when dry fields needed to be softened and prepared for new growth, they burst through crops about to be harvested and where deadly and homes were lost
what did farmers have to do protect their crops and keep crops watered in the hot dry climate
how much rain did Southern Mesopotamia get rarely more than a few sprinkles
droughts long periods of dry weather
what was a constant threat to farmers and their crops in Southern Mesopotamia droughts
what was different about Northern Mesopotamia it had enough rain to make some farming possible but had only pockets of fertile soil between rocky earth, the rivers did not leave as much silt
which Mesopotamia region had better fertile fields southern
where does the Fertile Crescent extend from from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea
is Mesopotamia larger or smaller than the Fertile Crescent smaller
what mountain range lies east of the Fertile Crescent Zagros Mountains
what did farmers need in the fall in Southern Mesopotamia water to plant and raise new crops
what was the problem with the rivers in Southern Mesopotamia in the fall the rivers were at their lowest
when was harvest time in ancient Mesopotamia spring
what happened to the rivers in spring they flooded their banks
why was flooding in the spring a problem for farmers they got more water then they wanted
how did farmers solve the problem of flooding in the spring they built water-control and irrigation systems
what did the water-control and irrigation systems consist of canals and gates
what kind of crops and gardens did early Mesopotamia farmers grow wheat, barley, beans, onions, lettuce, cucumbers and spice plants
what was the most important crops the farmers grew wheat and barley
what kind of trees did the farmers grow date, palm, apple,and pomegranate
where were the trees and crops planted along canal banks
why were the trees and crops planted along the banks because they needed the most water
who cared for the sheep and goats shepherds
what did Shepherds do care for sheep and goats and ward off attacks of other animals such as lions and jackals
what were Shepherds prized for their milk and wool
what animal did Mesopotamians value Cattle, they were good work-animals and used for milk, leather and meat
why is Mesopotamia important because it wasn't an ideal place to live but it is one of the world's earliest civilizations
what help to make the civilization possible water and soil brought by the Tigris and Euphrates River, the farmers
why were the farmers important in the civilization of Mesopotamia they used two rivers to make the land more fertile, they produce surplus crops which allowed for specialization and the growth of town and cities
describe the Mesopotamia region region between the Tigris and Euphrates river, it is divided into a rugged plateau to the north and Fertile plains to the south
what happens every year similar to the region of Egypt the Tigris and Euphrates river flood each year bringing water and silt to Mesopotamia
what was different about the flooding in Mesopotamia compared to the Egypt in Mesopotamia floods were often destructive and badly timed for farmers
what did farmers do in Mesopotamia to control dangerous flooding they used canal systems and this made the land productive
what was important about Southern Mesopotamias large surpluses this allowed people to live as skilled workers in cities
describe the region called Sumer around 3000 B.C. , a dozen small cities dotted southern Mesopotamia
what did the people of Sumer value their independence
what did the people of Sumer fight against and why they fought against being ruled by other cities so they could remain independent
what did all Sumerians share a rich cultural heritage
what did the Sumerian work hard to control the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to produce food crops
what did the Sumerians worship similar gods
what did the Sumerian invent some of the worlds first wheeled vehicles and sailboats
what machines did the Sumerians invent pottery wheels
what did the Sumerians explore new ideas in Math and Science
what did the Sumerians invent to bring the ancient cities together the invention of writing Cuneiform
what was widely shared because of the system of writing Cuneiform laws, letters, records, stories, instructions, riddles, proverbs
what do historians first believe Cuneiform was invented to record crop surpluses
how did Ancient Sumerians record the surpluses they used sharp reeds to scratch the records into wet clay tablets, the dried tablets became permanent records
when was the time of the oldest tablet found 3500 B.C.
what did the early Cuneiform symbols look like the things they described
what happened to the writing over time it was faster
how did they make writing faster by simplifying their figures to write more quickly
what was symbols combined to form complex words
how is cuneiform signs similar to Egyptian hieroglyphs they both formed signs to represent sound and ideas as well as objects
what was similar about the people that could right in Egypt and Mesopotamia few people could write
who did the writing it was honor to go to school and become a scribe, mostly boys and rarely girls learned to write
what did the kids learn in scribe school first how to make clay tablets and reed pens
how did the kids learn to write the students practiced over and over how to write the basic signs of cuneiform
what else besides cuneiform did the student learn mathematics so they would be able to keep accurate records
what did scribes write anything, even love letters and sealed them in envelopes, recorded stories, songs and laws
how do historians know what the scribes wrote because the sturdy tablets have survived thousands of years
why were scribes important they were record keepers since most people could not write, even Kings
the region of Mesopotamia was home to what two Empires Sumer and Babylonia
which empire was larger Sumer or Babylonia Babylonian
what is the Northern most city in Sumer Nippur
why did the Babylonian empire stretch along the rivers to use the water for crops
what is a city-state self-governing city that also governs surrounding villages
what are 3 city-states in sumer Ur, Uruk, Eridu
who was an early Sumerian mythical hero Gilgamesh
why was Gilgamesh considered a hero he knew everything, seen and done everything,built the walls of the city, Uruk, made of copper and burnt brick and wide enough to walk upon, he was part god, part man, and strong as an ox, best fighter
why did city-states go to war to gain control over precious water
what was built to protect against attack strong walls
why did they build gateways allow people and goods to get in and out of the city
what happened at city gates people gathered to buy fresh vegetables and other goods brought to the city by farmers and traders
describe the King's palace could be seen from anywhere in the city, where city-states planning and decision making took place
kings served as generals, judges, canal overseers
what was different about the King's of Egypt and Sumer the Sumerian kings were not considered gods
ziggurat a towering mud-bricked building with a temple at its peak
why did historians believe religion was important in sumerian cities because the ziggurats where in the center of the city
what was similar to egypt about sumerian religion polytheism
polytheism belief in many gods and goddesses
what did each cit-state have a special god or goddess
where was the city-states special god or goddess worshiped in each city-state at their zuggurat
what did people worship at home other gods and goddesses
who was Ishtar the goddess of love and war
who was Enki the god of water
who were two famous gods Ishtar and Enki
Sargon king of city-state Kish, he became the ruler of all the united city-states
when did Sargon rise to power around 2300 B.C.
where did Sargon expand his empire the norther end of the Fertile Crescent in what is present day Syria
who did the Sumerians trade with and where along the Mediterranean Sea they traded with the seafaring people call the Phoenicians.
who else did the Pheonicians trade with the merchants from Egypt
what did the Pheonicians send to Sargon's city-states wine and timber
what did the Pheonicians get in return when trading their wine and timber with Sargon's city-states Mesopotamian farm products and other goods
what spread in the Fertile Crescent along with traded goods Cuneiform writing, other cultures used cuneiform to write out their own languages
what could Sargon do since cuneiform was used throughout his empire he could send instructions and govern over great distances
what dominated most Sumerian cities around 2000 B.C. Ziggurats dominated
who led the worlds first empire Sargon, king of Kish
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