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Chapter 21

Exploration

QuestionAnswer
Who was Marco Polo? The Venetian explorer who sparked European interest in trading with the world around them. He was a well-known story-teller, diplomat, and merchant in Mongol China.
Why did Khubilai Khan make Marco Polo governor of Yangzhou?? Because Khubilai Khan did not trust his Chinese subjects in administrative posts, selecting foreigners instead.
Describe Mongol-Christian diplomacy (allude to Pope Innocent IV and Rabban Sauma) Christians & Mongols had a common enemy; Muslims. Pope Innocent IV sent envoys to propose to the khan to ally and convert to Christianity ("No"). Rabban Sauma was a priest & envoy for the Mongols who failed to attract European support for the khan.
Who was Ibn Battuta? An Islamic legal scholar who visited lands with vew educated in sharia, so he had no trouble finding work as a qadi (judge). He attempted in his work to promote traditional Islamic principles and proper religious obervance.
Describe the success of Sufi mystics in promoting Islam. They were successful; because their beliefs were so lienient, allowed for reverence of other deities, and promoting of piety and devotion as opposed to strict doctrinaire, they recieved a lot less resistance than other campaigns would provoke.
To where were the most ambitious Roman Catholic missions? Mongol China
List some of John of Montecorvino's actions as a Christian missionary. Translated the New Testament and book os Psalms into Turkish, baptized and taught young Mongol and Chinese boys Latin and Roman Catholic rituals, and baptized about 6,000 people. He was, however, unsuccesful in attracting many people to Christianity.
How did Christian missions affect the rest of the world after 1000 CE? Made Christian communities in Scandinavia, East Europe, Spain, and the Mediterranean islands recaptured from Muslims. East Asia was too distant for resources available to the Catholic church. However, missions continued into the 14th century.
What are some of the diffused technologies that facilitated long-distance travel? The magnetic compass from China, the astrolabe, and triangular sails.
How did the spread of crops affect Africa, Europe, and Muslims respectively? Africa: Citrus and rice enriches diets, cotton popular & textiles became the main export of sub-Saharan Arica. Europe: Sugarcane plantations in Mediterranean; demand for sugar. Muslims: Introducing to Africa and Europeans crops. Trade growth.
Who utilized gunpowder? The Mongols utilized gunpowder in their army, creating bombs and artillery. They used it most. The Europeans later experimented with gunpowder rockets and later used primitive cannons.
What were the two crises marking the middle ages? The Little Ice Age and the Bubonic Plague.
How did the Little Ice Age affect the world? Agricultural decrease, famine, sometimes starvation. Norse settlers abandoned their colonies occupied in Greenland since the tenth century; it was just too cold to practice agriculture.
How did the Bubonic Plague originate? Where did it spread from? Plague bacillus infected fleas who infected rodents who infected each other; the fleas spread the disease to humans. The disease spread from the Yunnan region in Southwest China and was spread by Mongolian campaigns.
How did the Plague affect the populations of China, Europe, and Islamic societies in southwest Asia, Egypt, and north Africa? The population dropped severly - in China, the population dropped from 85 mil. in 1300 to 75 mil. in 1400. In Europe, the population decreased by about 25%. In the Islamic regions, their population dropped as well, but they took longer to recover.
How did the Plague affect the social aspects of its affected areas? Severe labor shortages, available jobs, peasants attempted to move about the land, but landlords and the government froze wages to deter them. Peasants reblled in response.
How did Hongwu rule the Ming dynasty? Centralized; reinstated Confucian education. To encourage obedience to the central government, he employed Mandarins (emissaries who ensured local officials implemented imperial authority) and eunuchs (men who could not build a powerful familial base).
What were the two key elements in European state-building? Taxes to fund the army, and the army itself.
What was the Hundred Years' War? Hostile campaigns between the French and English; the kings constantly sparred over land.
How did Russia gain independence from the Mongols? The Grand Prince Ivan III (Ivan the Great) stopped paying tribute to them, refusing to acknowledge Mongolian supremacy.
What is a csar/tzar? A Russian ruler; a borrowed form of the Roman term caesar.
Describe the Renaissance artists. Masaccio and Da Vinci (painters) attempted to add more emotion, natural forms, and 3-dimensional views of their subjects. Michelangelo and Donatello tried to depict their subjects naturally and adhere to the anatomy of their muscles & posture (sculptors).
What did Brunelleschi's dome symbolize? Which dome did he oversee the construction to? Domes, such as the Florence Cathedral one Brunelleschi oversaw, represented the city's wealth and its leadership in art and culture.
What is Humanism? How does it differ to today's interpretation? The study of humanities - history, social science, literature, philosophy, etc. It was deeply religious; today, it's associated with secularism.
What did Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam do? Translate the New Testament into Greek and Latin.
What was significant about Humanist moral thought? It stated that one could lead a virtous life while participating actively in the world's affairs, even personal affairs, such as marriage and business. They did not need to go off and become monks or nuns.
Were Zheng He's expeditions successful? Yes; the purpose of the expeditions was to to show off the might of the Chinese and to
Created by: Saya-Bella