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Orange Module

Orange Module Review-Digestive

What are rugae? Folds in the stomach, secrete hydrochloric acid and enzymes.
What are the accessory organs of the GI system? Liver, gallbladder, pancreas.
What are the four divisions of the colon? Ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon.
What are the functions of the liver? Produces bile, removes glucose (sugar) from the blood, stores vitamins B12, A, D, E and K, destroys or transforms toxic products, destroys damaged red blood cells, synthesizing proteins that circulate in the blood.
What are the three main components of the large intestine? Cecum, colon, rectum.
What are the three main parts of the stomach? Fundus, body, pylorus.
What are the two structures that form the roof of the mouth? Hard palate, soft palate.
What is the medical term for the mouth? Oral cavity.
What is another name for the GI tract? Alimentary canal.
What are villi? Microscopic finger-like projections.
Where does peristalsis occur? From the pharynx to the anus. (The entire GI tract)
Where is digestion completed? Small intestine.
What is a volvulus? A life-threatening obstruction in which the bowel twists on itself.
What are hemorrhoids? Enlarged veins in the mucous membrane of the anal canal.
What causes hepatitis A? Ingestion of contaminated food, water or milk.
What is diverticulosis? Small blisterlike pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine.
What is ulcerative colitis? Chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum.
Where are ulcers commonly found? Stomach and duodenum.
Where do inguinal hernias develop? In the groin where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs.
Which large intestine disorder is associated with a higher risk of colon cancer? Ulcerative colitis.
ulcer A lesion of the skin or mucous membrane which frequently develops in the duodenum or stomach.
occult blood A test in which stool samples are collected to determine gastrointestinal bleeding.
ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
hernia Abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through the structures that normally contain it.
deglutition Act of swallowing.
gallbladder An organ below the liver which stores and empties bile through its ducts into the small intestine.
pancreas An organ which uses ducts to provide exocrine secretions to the duodenum to aid in digestion.
regurgitation Backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach.
mastication Chewing.
fecalith Fecal concretion.
cecum First 2-3" of the large intestine.
ascending colon First portion of the colon, extending from the lower border of the liver.
cholelithiasis Formation of gallstones.
flatus Gas in the GI tract.
ulterative colitis Inflammation and ulceration of the innermost lining of the colon.
diverticulitis Inflammation of a sac-like bulge that may develop in the wall of the large intestine.
stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth of the stomach.
anorexia Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat.
rectum Last portion of the GI tract.
ileum Lower division of the small intestine.
serum bilirubin Measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood.
halitosis Offensive or "bad" breath.
proctologist One who specializes in diseases of the colon, rectum and anus.
melena Passage of dark-coloured, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices.
steatorrhea Passage of fat in large amounts in the feces.
celiac Pertaining to the abdomen.
buccal Peraining to the cheek.
lithotripsy Procedure for crushing a stone.
eructation Producing gas from the stomach.
peristalsis Progressive, wavelike movement.
upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) Radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine.
lower gastrointestinal series (BE) Radiographic examination of the rectum and colon.
cholecystogram/graphy Radiographic record of the gallbladder.
borborygmus Rumbing or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance.
cirrhosis Scarring and dysfunction of the liver.
jejunum Second division of the small intestine.
transverse colon Second portion of the colon that passes horizontally across the abdomen toward the spleen.
obstipation Severe constipation.
pyloric stenosis Stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter.
enterostomy Surgical formation of an opening from the small intestine through the abdominal wall.
ileostomy Surgical formation of an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall.
anastomosis Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another.
cheiloplasty Surgical repair of the lip.
aerophagia Swallowing air.
liver The largest glandular organ.
diarrhea The passage of unformed watery bowel movements.
ingest To eat.
hematemesis Vomiting blood.
malabsorption When nutrients are digested but are not taken in by the intestinal tissues.
oral leukoplakia White patches that form on the tongue, lips or cheek.
Ba barium
BaE, BE barium enema
BM bowel movement
BMI body mass index
CF cystic fibrosis
CT computed tomography
EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ERCP endoscopic retrograde choleangiopancreatography
GB gallbladder
GERD gastroseophageal reflux disease
GI gastrointestinal
HBV hepatitis B virus
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
LFT liver function test
PE physical examination
PMH past medical history
PUD peptic ulcer disease
R/O rule out
RGB Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
STAT immediately
Created by: Barbara Ross
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