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Chap 13 Assessment

Chapter 13 Assessment

Mecca The birth town of Muhammad. Muslims make a trip, or hajj, once in their lifetime to Mecca.
Bedouins Nomadic herders who would form the backbone of the armies that conquered a huge empire in the 600s and 700s.
Kaaba An ancient shrine that Muslims believe was built by the prophet Abraham.
Khadija A wealthy woman who ran a prosperous caravan business. She become the wife of Muhammad when he was 25 years old.
Quran The sacred text of Islam
People of the Book The People of the Book are the Jews and Christians, because they are spiritually superior to polytheistic idol worshipers.
Sharia System of laws that regulate moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community.
oasis fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring.
hijra The journey that was taken by Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib.
monotheistic The belief in one God.
mosque houses of worship
hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
jihad effort in God's service
Abu Bakr
battle of Tours The place in Spain were the Muslim's advance into western Europe was halted in 732.
Fatima and Ali
Sufi Muslim mystics who sought communication with God through meditation.
Umayyads Dynasty that ruled the Islamic world until 750.
Abbassids Dynasty founded by Abu al-Abbas after he killed members of the Umayyad dyansty. The Abbassids dynasty lasted until 1258.
Harun al-Rashid A caliph who was well known for his generosity. He used his generosity to create closer ties with other rulers.
Seljuks Turks who migrated from Central Asia to Middle East. They adopted Islam and built a large empire across the Fertile Cresent.
Tamerlane A Mongolian Islamic leader who conquered Muslim and non-Muslim lands. He overran Persia and Mesopotamia and then invaded Russia and India.
caliph successor to Muhammad
minaret slender towers of mosques
muezzin mosque official
sultan authority
Omar Khayyam
Averroes Islamic who is most famous for being a philosopher. He first focused on medicine and became chief physician to the Muslim ruler in Spain. He studied astronomy and wrote several books on astronomy.
Muhammad al-Razi Head physician at Baghdad's chief hospital. He wrote many books on medicine, including a pioneer study of measles and smallpox.
Avicenna 16 year old was a doctor to the Persian nobility. He wrote the Canon of Medicine, which was a huge encyclopedia that the Greeks, the Arabs, and himself had learned about the diagnosis and treatment of disease
social mobility the ability to move up in social class
arabesque an intricate design composed of curved lines that suggest floral shapes
calligraphy art of beautiful handwriting
Sikhism A religion founded by Nanak in India. He preached "the unity of God, the brotherhood of man, the rejection of caste, and the futility of idol worship"
Babur Military genius, poet, and author of a fascination book of memoirs. He claimed he was a descendant of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane.
Mughal Dynasty created by Babur who swept away the remnants of the Delhi sultanate. The dynasty lasted from 1526 to 1857.
Nur Jahan Wife of Jahangir. She was an able leader who had shrewd political judgement, and a love for poetry and royal sports.
Taj Mahal Tomb built by Shah Jahan for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
sultanate land ruled by a sultan
caste social groups from which they could not change
rajah local Hindu rulers