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Age of Exploration

What are 3 words to describe why the Europeans wanted to explore. God, Glory(nation and individuals, patrons like Prince Henry), and gold
Why did the Europeans seek new trade routes? new source of wealth, spices, can trade with others with high prices, find route directly to Asia because they were being charged high wages by the Italians for the same goods.
How does technology make it possible to explore? New vessel- The Caravel, can sail against wind Astrolabe- navigate with stars then sextant Compass from Chinese, cannons, steel, maps, journals
How does Portugal lead the way? Developed/ applied sailing innovations, 1st to establish trading posts on west coast of africa
Why did the Portuguese want to explore Africa? Strong government support, prince henry was a big supporter. He wanted wealth since 1415 and went to east. Wanted to spread christianity, he founded navigation school to perfect instruments, died 1460. Wanted to find sea route to asia
How do the Portuguese reach Asia? 1st sailed around southern tip of Africa. Bartolomeu Diaz died in storm. 1497- Vasca da Gama found route to india 1498- India Calicut, returned with spices 1499, 27,000 miles
How might renaissance Values contribute to the age of exploration? Individualism- standing out by exploring new lands and building new technologies Intellectualism- wanted to learn about new places/cultures Materialism- money/gold/spices from new lands Skepticism- Questioning others, the right way to travel.
What is a time line to show who enjoyed dominance of trade monopoly? Italians and Muslims enjoy trade monopoly late1400s- Portugal has advantage 1500s- the Golden Century of Spain Mid 1600s- Golden Age of the dutch 1680s and onwards- British
What are social effects of the Columbian Exchange? Diseases- Small pox, measles/mumps for europeans. 50-90% of Natives perish Plants- Tobacco, wheat/grapes/ potatoes, Europeans population doubles because of the increase in Calories Animals- Pigs/cows/ horses to eat, farm, travel, and hunt. people- sla
What is the Columbian exchange? The exchange of resources with new world. plants, animals, people, disease
How did the columbian Exchange effect the politics of Europe? Euro. nation established permanent settlements/colonies Competetion for new territories-War natice empire conquered by Europeans- downfall of empires.
How did guns, germs, and steel effect the European conquest? Guns- to fight and scare off natives Germs- killed euro. and natives fast and did not know how to stop it. Steel- new welding for harder swords from fertile crescent. Rapyer (sword)
What were some political effects of the European conquest? Conflict, End of incan (aztec) empire, millions died, can extend European power politically with permanent settlements.
What were some economic effects of European conquest? Spain became richest nation(inflation), took from Incas, africans and natives lost a lot.
What was the Atlantic Slave trade? The transportation of slaves from Africa to the new world to work, usually on plantations.
What were some causes of the atlantic slave trade? Cheap labor, could not use the natives who died from diseases, Africans were immune, experience in farming, didn't know their way around could not escape, skin color made it easier to find them if they did try to escape.
What were the effects of the atlantic slave trade? Europeans imported 9.5 million by 1870. Spain- 300,000 by 1650 to mine and work o plantations, Brazil dominated Euro. sugar market, 1.7 million to west indies, African merchants made new trade routes, millions died on voyage, triangular trade, middle pass
What were some social effects of European exploration? To natives, Africans, and Europeans? Natives- loss of population from disease- end of empires, better ways to farm with animals, new food Africans- Died on passage, lost families, into a new culture, land Europeans- Money, inflation, riches, more trading area, expanded culture, settlements
Who was Bartolome de las Casas? Dominican bishop of Chiapas in Mexico, Spaniard, influential in protesting the brutality of conquest and colonial rule of the Spaniards.
How did las Casas defend the indians? Described them as harmless, gentle, ignorant and innocent. He once lived with them to know this. The Indians were thought as barbarous but turned out not to be. The Indians are smart and able because they have their own government and states. Not ignorant
How did Las Casas criticize Europeans? War is anti-christian, greedy, violent, cruel, not suitable to spread Christ, not following golden rule, against their own morals, inhuman, in the Indians point of view the Spaniards are evil.
What techniques did Las Casas use to persuade Europeans? Tried to persuade them by using their morals against them. God, golden rule, getting at their emotions by describing how terrible the Indians lives were.
What is the line of Demarcation? made by pope Alexander VI in 1493 between Spain and Portugal. Everything west of line was Spain's, everything east was Portugal. 1494 the Treaty of Tordesillas moved line over to the east a bit. Spain and Portugal were jealous of each other from trade.
What was the dutch east India co.? Established trading posts in india.
Who helped spread Catholicism to Latin america most effectively? Jesuits
Who was Francisco Pizarro? Born in 1476 in Spain, explorer of Peru and pacific ocean.
Who was Hernan Cortes? Spain- defeated Aztec empire with much force at capitol, Tenochtitlan, claimed Mexico as Spain's.
Created by: ElenaCollins