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Chapter 11 Id & Def

Chapter 11 Identify and Define

TermDefinition
Mecca The city in the Hejaz and the capital of Makkah Province in Saudi Arabia.
Bedouins Many Arab clans occupied Arabia at the time of Muhammad. Nomadic herders.
Kaaba Arabs came to pray at this place, an ancient shrine that Muslims today believe was built by the prophet Abraham.
Khadija A wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan business.
Quran The sacred word of God as revealed to Muhammad.
People of the Book Spiritually superior to polytheistic idol worshipers.
Sharia Regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslims community.
Oasis Fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring.
Hijra Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622.
Monotheistic Believing in one God.
Mosque Muslim house of worship.
Hajj One of the Five Pillars of Islam, the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime.
Jihad In Islam, an effort in God's service.
Abu Bakr Successor of Muhammad. Refused to follow Abu Bakr and withdrew their loyalty to Islam. Succeeded in reuniting the Arabs.
Battle of Tours In 711 the Arabs crossed the Strait of Gibraltar into Spain and pushed north into France.
Fatima and Ali Were Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law. The Shiites argued that the only true successors to the Prophet were desecendants.
Sufi Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals.
Umayyads Had to adapt from desert life to ruling large cities and huge territories.
Abbassids Abu al-Abbas founded this dynasty, which lasted until 1258.
Harun al-Rashid Ruled Beghdad from 786 to 809. Harun was admired as a model ruler. He was viewed as a symbol of wealth and splendor.
Seljuks Migrated into the Middle East from Central Asia. Adopted Islam and built a large empire across the Fertile Crescent.
Tamerlane Mongol leader, Timur the Lame, led his armies into the Middle East. Victorious armies overran Persia and Mesopotamia.
Caliph Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims.
Minaret Slender tower of mosque, from which Muslims are called to prayer.
Muezzin Mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer.
Sultan Muslim ruler.
Omar Khayyam Famous in the Muslim world as a scholar and astronomer, is best known to westerners for The Rubaiyat.
Averroes In Cordoba, the philosopher Ibn Rushd - Known in Europe as Averroes put all knowledge except the Quran to the test of reason.
Muhammad al-Razi Head Physician at Baghdad's chief hospital Wrote many books on medicine.
Avicenna For 500 years, the works of Avicenna and al-Razi were the standard medical textbooks at European schools.
Social Mobility Ability to move up in social class.
Arabesque Intricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware.
Calligraphy Fancy or stylized handwriting.
Sikhism His teaching led to the rise of a new religion.
Babur Who claimed descent from Genghiz Khan and Tamerlane. Was a military genius, poet, and author.
Mughal Babur swept away the remnants of the Delhi sultanate and set up the Mughal dynasty, which ruled from 1526 to 1857.
Nur Jahan Was the wife of Jahangir who left most details of government.
Taj Mahal When Shah Jahan's wife died , Mumtaz Mahal, he had a stunning tomb built for her.
Sultante Land ruled by a sultan.
Caste In traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born.
Rajah Elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient India; local Hindu ruler ruler in India.
Sinan A janizary military engineer, designed hundreds of mosques and palaces.
Isfahan A center of the international silk trade. Controlled by Armenians.
Millet In the Ottoman empire, a religious community of non-Muslims.
Janizary Elite force of the Ottoman army.
Shah King.
Created by: Eric Villegas