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Chapter 11 Identify


Mecca Bustling market town on the crossroads of two main caravan routes. Thriving pilgramage center. Arabs came here to pray at Kaaba
Bedouins Nomadic herders used camels to cross the scorching desert in search of seasonal pasturelands. Would form backbone of armies that conquered huge empires.
Kaaba Ancient shrine that Muslims today believe was built by prophet Abraham, all arabs are expected to make a trip to see kaaba at some point in life.
Khadija Wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan business, would become Muhhammads wife.
Quran Sacred text of Islam teaches that god is all power-ful and compassionate.
People of the Book Muslims name for Jews and Christians who are spiritually superior to polytheistic idol worshipers.
Sharia Islamic system of law that regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of law called Sharia.
Oasis Fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring
Hijra Muhamad's flight form Mecca to Medina in 622
Monotheistic Believing in one God
Mosque Muslim house of worship
Hajj One of the Five Pillars of Islam, the pilgrimage to MEcca tha all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime
JIhad In Islam, an effort in God's Service
Abu Bakr First caliph, faced trouble with loyalty from Arab tribes after Muhammads death. However he was able to reunite the Arabs.
Battle of Tours First defeat in the Muslim armies, keeping them from entering France
Fatima an Ali Descendants of Muhammad that were believed to be the rightful caliph by Shiites. Fatima was Muhammads daughter and Ali his son-in-law.
Sufi Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals. Respected for piety and miraculous power.
Umayyads Family that set up dynasty after Ali. Had to adapt from desert life to ruling cities and huge territories. Relied on local officials for government
Abbasids Dynasty started by Abu al-Abbas who captured Damascus, and killed the Umayyads by inviting them to a banquet and killing them there,
Harun al-Rashid The city of Baghdad would reach its peak under his rule, which extended from 786 to 809. Viewed as symbol of wealth and splendor
Seljuks Adopted Islam after migrating to Middle East. Built empire on fertile crescent.
Tamerlane Mongol leader, Timur the Lame, led armies into Middle East. Was a Muslim
Caliph Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of Muslim
Minaret Slender tower of a mosque, from which Muslims are called to prayer
Muezzin Mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer
Sultan Muslim ruler
Omar Khayyám Famous in Muslim world as a scholar and astronomer, best known to westerners for The Rubaiyat.
Averroes Philosopher Ibn Rushd, put all knowledge except the Quran to the test of reason
Muhammad al-Razi Original medical thinker, head physician at Baghdad's chief hospital. Wrote many books over medicine. Started the study for measles and smallpox
Avicenna Persian physician Ibn Sina was a doctor by age 16, wrote Canon on Medicine was an encyclopedia of what he and others had discovered about treatment.
Social mobility Ability to move up in social class
Arabesque Intricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware
Calligraphy Fancy or stylized handwritting
Sikhism New religion formed by the teaching of Nanak, began in northern India.
Babur Led Turkish and Mongol invaders, was a militray genius, poet, and author of a fascinating book of memoirs, he also claimed to be a descendent of Tamerlame and Genghiz Khan.
Mugha Persian word for Mongol, Mughal was a dynasty set up by Babur after he removed the remnants of Dehli Sultanante
Nur Jahan Wife who handled government details for husband Jahangir, most powerful women in India until the 12 centuary.
Taj Mahal A tomb built for Mumtaz Mahal after she died. Designed in persian style. Greatest monument in Mughal empire.
Sultanate Land ruled by a sultan
Caste In traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born
Rajah Elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient India; local Hindu ruler in India
Sinan A Janizary millitary engineer, designed hundreds of mosques and palaces.
Isfahan Center of international silk trade. Trade was controlled by Armenians.
Millet In the Ottoman empire, a religious community of non-Muslims are called to prayer
Janizary Elite force of the Ottoman army
Created by: ThomasNelson