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World History 102

Chapter 11 Identify and Define

TermDefinition
Mecca A thriving pilgrimage center where Muhammad destroyed the idols in the Kaaba.
Bedouins Nomadic herders that rode camels across the desert.
Kaaba A place for arabs to pray to local gods and goddesses.
Khadija Muhammad's wife. She became the first follower of Islam
Quran The sacred text of Islam
People of the Book Muslims, Jews, and Christians that believe in only one God.
Sharia Regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and many other aspects of a Muslim community.
Oasis A fertile area, in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring.
Hijra Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Yathrib
Monotheistic The belief in one God.
Mosque A Muslim house of worship, used for prayer.
Hajj The pilgrimage to Mecca.
Jihad An effort or service in God's name
Abu Bakr The first caliph after Muhammad that reunited the Arabs
Battle of Tours The battle that halted the Muslim's advance into Western Europe.
Fatima and Ali The daughter and Son-in-law of Muhammad. Ali became the fourth Caliph. The Shiites believed only their descendants could become Caliphs.
Sufi Third tradition of Islam in which Muslim mystics sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals.
Umayyads Family that set up a dynasty that lasted until 750
Abbassids The dynasty lead by Abu al-abbas that overthrew the Umayyads, and lasted until 1258.
Harun al-Rashid Model ruler between 786 and 809. Baghdad reached its peak.
Sejulks They adopted Islam and migrated into Asia Minor, threatening the Byzantine Empire, leading to the First Crusade.
Tamerlane A Muslim Mongol leader. He overran Persia and Mesopotamia, and also invaded Russia and India.
Caliph Successor to Muhammad
Minaret The slender towers of mosques
Muezzin A mosque official that calls people to pray
Sultan Authority
Omar Khayyám Scholar and Astronomer. Author of the Rubáiyát, a collection of four line poems.
Averroes Put all knowledge to the test of reason, except for the Quran. He influenced Christian scholastics in Europe. Also known as Ibn Rushd
Muhammad Al-Razi Wrote many books on medicine, pioneering the study of smallpox and measles
Avicenna Author of a book called Canon on Medicine, which contained over 4,000 prescriptions. Also known as Ibn Sina
Social Mobility The ability to move up in a social class
Arabesque An intricate design composed of curved lines that suggest floral shapes
Calligraphy The art of beautiful handwriting
Sikhism A blend of Hinduism and Islam. Unity of God, brotherhood of man, rejection of the caste system.
Babur Descendant of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. He conquered the Delhi sultanate.
Mughal The persian word for mongol. The dynasty that ruled northern India from 1526 to 1857.
Nur Jahan The wife of Akbar's son, Jahangir. She held most of the details of the government. She was the most powerful woman in India until the Twentieth century.
Taj Mahal A Persian styled tomb for Shah Jahan's wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The greatest monument of the Mughal empire.
Sultanate Land ruled by a sultan
Caste Social groups from which you cannot change
Rajah Hindu rulers
Sinan A janizary military engineer that designed hundreds of mosques and palaces, one of which was comparable to the Hagia Sophia. It was called the Selimiye Mosque at Edirne
Isfahan Shah Abbas the Great's capital of the Safavid empire. It became a center of the international silk trade.
Millet Religious community
Janizary The elite force of the Ottoman army
Shah King
Created by: Diego Solis