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Chapter 11

Mecca An Arabian town that is now a cultural crossroads because it is considered a holy city in the Islamic religion.
Bedouins Nomadic herders that inhabited the Arabian peninsula and used camels to cross the scorching desert in search of seasonal pasturelands.
Kaaba An ancient shrine that Muslims today believe was built by the prophet Abraham.
Khadija Kadijah was Muhammad's first wife, whom he was very loyal and faithful to. She was a wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan business when she married Muhammad. Kadijah was also the first Muslim convert.
Quran the Quran is the sacred text of Islam, and are believed to be the words of God that were given to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel.
People of the book "People of the Book" are monotheistic worshippers that Muslims believe to be spiritually superior to polytheistic idol worshippers
Sharia slamic system of law that regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community.It does not separate civil and religious matters, and is uses the Quran as the final say on all legal situations
Oasis Fertile area in a desert,watered by a natural well or spring
Hijra Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 22
Monotheistic Belief in one god
Mosque Muslim house of worship
Hajj One of the five pillars of Islam, the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime.
Jihad In Islam, an effort in God's service.
Abu Bakr Abu Bakr was the first caliph, or successor to Muhammad. He struggled with keeping Arab tribal leaders loyal to Islam, however, managed to reunite the tribes once again.
Battle of Tours Under the first four Caliphs, Arab armies undertook many military conquests. Their push led them all the way through Spain. After conquering Spain, they attempted to move northward into France, however, were defeated at the the Battle of Tours.
Fatima and Ali Fatima and Ali were the daughter and son-in-law of Muhammad. Ali served as the fourth Caliph, but was assassinated in 661 in a struggle for leadership.
Sufi Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals.
Umayyads Set up family dynasty that riled the Islamic world until 750
Abbassids The Abbassids set up a dynasty after defeating the Umayyad dynasty. (after capturing the capital of Damascus, Abu al Abbas invited the Umayyads to dinner - and killed them all) The Abbassid dynasty lasted until 1258. (golden age during this time)
Harun al-Rashid Harun al-Rashid was an Abbasid caliph who ruled from 786-809. He was admired as a model ruler, and was viewed as a symbol of wealth and splendor because he brought Baghdad to its peak.
Seljuks The Seljuk Turks migrated into the Middle East, adopted Islam, and established a large empire across the Fertile Crescent. Although the Turk leader controlled Baghdad, he left the Caliph as a figurehead. Threatened Christians, causes first crusade.
Tamerlane Tamerlane (aka Timur the Lame) was a Muslim Mongol leader that led his armies into the Middle East and conquered both Muslim and non-Muslim lands.His armies overran Persia and Mesopotamia before invading Russia and India.
caliph Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
minaret Slender tower of mosque, from which Muslims are called to prayer
muezzin Mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer
sultan Musilum ruler
Omar Khayyám Omar Khayyám was famous in the Muslim world as a scholar and astronomer, and is best known to westerners for "The Rubáiyát," which is a collectrion of four-line poems that meditate on fate and the fleeting nature of life.
Averroes Also known as Ibn Rushd, Averroes was a philosopher from Cordoba that put all knowledge except the Quran to the test of reason. His writings on Aristotle were translated into Latin and influenced Christian scholastics in Medieval Europe.
Muhammad al-Razi Muhammad al-Razi wrote many books on medicine, including a pioneering study of measles and smallpox. He was the head physician at Baghdad's chief hospital, and taught young doctors to "treat the mind as well as the body."
Avicenna Persian physician, also known as Ibn Sina. He wrote the Canon on Medicine, a huge encyclopedia of Greek, Arabs, and himself had discovered about the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Social Mobility the ability to move up in social class.
Arabesque ntricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware.
Calligraphy The art of beautiful handwriting.
Sikhism A blend of Hinduism and Islam. Unity of God, brotherhood of man, rejection of the caste system.
Babur claimed to be descent from Genghiz Khan and Tamerlane. was a military genius, poet, and author of a fascination book of memoirs.
Mughal The persian word for mongol. The dynasty that ruled northern India from 1526 to 1857.
Nur Jahan The wife of Akbar's son, Jahangir. She held most of the details of the government. She was the most powerful woman in India until the Twentieth century.
Taj Mahal A Persian styled tomb for Shah Jahan's wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The greatest monument of the Mughal empire.
Sultanate land ruled by a sltan
Caste in traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born
Rajah elected warrior chief of an aryan tribe in ancient India; local hindu ruler in India
Sinan A royal architect, a janizary military engineer, designed hundreds of mosques and palaces. His most famous building is the Selimiye Mosque at Edrine. He compared it to the most famous church in the Byzantine empire, Hagia Sophia.
Isfahan A magnificent new capital a center of the international silk trade. Created by Abbas In the Safavid Empires.
Millet In the Ottoman empire, religious community of non-Muslims.
Janizary Elite force of the Ottoman army.
Shah King
Created by: addyson.taft