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WH 10: Unit 6

Napoleonic Wars & Political Unification

Napoleon Bonaparte A French general who after a coup d'etat led France in a dictatorship. He tried to strengthen France with his Napoleonic Code of laws as well as educational reforms. Then he unsuccessfully to take over Europe, to place it all under French control.
Coup d'etat French term that means "an overthrow of the government". Generally a coup d'etat is accomplished by force. Napoleon overthrew the French Revolution's government using the French army in a coup d'etat
Concordat An agreement between Napoleon and the Catholic Church which said that in return for declaring that Catholicism was the major religion of France the Catholic Church would support Napoleon’s rule.
Napoleonic Code Napoleon's legal code which made the laws of France understandable to all men. Based on the idea that all men were equal before the law & ensured individual rights & the security of property It was pro-business & it discriminated against women.
Nationalism Loyalty to your country rather than to your King or leader. It is one of the effects of the French Revolution. It is increased by Napoleon as well as the Revolutions of the 1830s and 1848 and the unification movements in Italy & Germany.
Slash and burn Military tactic in which the home army, retreat but as they retreat they destroy everything of value or of use so that the invaders cannot use it. This policy was used by the Russians to hurt Napoleon it helped cause Napoleon's Russian defeat.
Hundred Days Napoleon was defeated & exiled but returned & took over France again. For his second time as the leader of France he would be in charge for a mere 100 days. He believed he needed a military victory & attacked Belgium where he was defeated and re-exiled.
Battle of Waterloo Napoleon's last battle at the town of Waterloo in Belgium mostly by the British. It marks the end of Napoleon's power, he was re-exiled to an island off the coast of Africa after his loss in Waterloo.
Congress of Vienna A meeting in Vienna, Austria of the victorious powers after Napoleon’s defeat that attempted to restore Europe to pre-French Revolution & Napoleon Europe. Discussed how to weaken France, balance of power, & restoration of the monarchies.
Klemens von Metternich The key figure and head of the Congress of Vienna meeting. He is the Austrian prince and foreign minister. He had three goals to accomplish at this meeting and he accomplished all three.
Weaken France One of Metternich's goals at the Congress of Vienna, other countries needed to punish France for Napoleon's actions so they redrew the map of Europe and putting France back to its old pre-French Revolution borders
Balance of Power Political system in which no country may attack another country regardless of its size or power.The idea was that small countries in Europe would create alliances with larger stronger countries and that all countries would agree to defend each other.
Restoration of the Monarchies One of Metternich's goals at the Congress of Vienna was to put back in place any Kings (monarchs) who had been removed from power. Which meant that France a country that fought for 10 years to gain independence was required to have a King again.
Conservatism Characterized by a desire for little or no change, or a return to old values. Most conservatives were usually wealthy property owners and nobility. They argued for protecting the traditional monarchies of Europe, they did not like change.
Liberalism Characterized by change. Most liberals were middle-class business leaders and merchants. They wanted to give more power to elected parliaments (legislative government bodies), but believed only the educated and land owners would votes.
Radicalism Characterized by extreme change. Most radicals were lower-class peasants. They wanted power to be held in only democratic governments and believed that everyone should vote
Patriotism Love for your country rather than your king but a more moderate and tempered opinion. People who believe in this can see their country's weaknesses but can still love and support their country.
Revolutions of the 1830s A wave of revolutions that swept throughout Europe as a backlash against outside control. Nationalism led the Greeks to successfully overthrew the Ottoman Turks but the Italians lost to the Austrians and the Polish lost to the Russians.
Revolutions of 1848 In 1848 uprisings erupted throughout Europe. Nationalistic uprisings broke out in Austria, Budapest, Hungary, Czechoslovakia. Unfortunately,one country after another failed to unite their nations and conservatives regained their power.
King Emmanuel II Italian King under whom Italy became unified in 1870
Count Camillio di Cavour He was the chief minister of the Italian King Emmanuel II. He worked using diplomacy to expand the King Emmanuel II's control over other areas of northern Italy.
Giuseppe Garibaldi He was a nationalistic leader who led an army of patriots “red shirts” that won control of much of southern Italy by military force and then turned the territory over to King Emmanuel II. Thus unifying ALL of Italy as one country under one King's control.
Italy The name for the country created officially in 1870 under King Emmanuel II.
1870 The last area to join was Papal States (Catholic Church) lands including Rome. The year of Italian unification and the first year that we can refer to Italy as one country rather than a grouping of separate city-states.
Prussia A country that originally began after the fall of the Holy Roman Empire that is east of France and yet west of Russia. This area had been strengthened by several kings and chancellors who believed that Prussia needed a strong military to protect itself.
Otto von Bismark Chancellor of Prussia known as the "Iron Chancellor", believed in realpolitik, and masterminded the creation of Germany as a union of the various German states and Prussia after the Franco-Prussian War which he tricked the French into and then won.
Realpolitik Otto von Bismark's actions reflected the Machiavellian belief, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power. According to this political philosophy it was okay for your government to lie to you as long as your government had a reason.
Franco-Prussian War 1860's land war that proved the final step in the German unification process. In order to win the loyalty of German areas in the Austrian and Austria-Hungarian south, Bismarck purposefully angered a weak France so that it would declare war on Prussia.
Kaiser German term for King. The Kaiser of Germany was the King over the united German states and Prussia
Wilhelm I The former King of Prussia who is more well known as the first Kaiser of Germany.
Created by: thompsonce