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World History

Chapter 11 Identify and Define

TermDefinition
Mecca Arabian marketplace town
Bedouins nomadic herders
Kaaba an ancient shrine that Muslims today believe was built by the prophet Abraham
Khadija a wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caraban business
Quran the sacred text of Islam
People of the Book Jews and Christians are "People of the Book," spiritually superior to polytheistic idol worshipers.
Sharia Islamic system of law
Oasis a fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring.
Hijra a journey in which Muhammad and his followers left Mecca for Yathrib
Monotheistic Belief in one God
Mosque houses of worship
Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca
Jihad effort in God's service, as another duty.
Abu Bakr An early convert to Islam who was determined to continue the prophets work, and then faced crises later on only for him to reunite the Arabs.
Battle of Tours A battle in 732 where the Muslims were defeated by the people of Spain
Fatima and Ali The daughter of son-in law of Muhammad who were chosen by the Shiites to be the successors of the prophet.
Sufi A tradition who sought communication with God through fasting, meditation, and rituals
Umayyades A group who relied of local official to influence Arab rulers. The Shiites hated them for killing Ali and killed Fatima
Abbassids A group who wiped out the Umayyades. They ended Arab dominance and gotten the empire of the Caliph to its greatest.
Harun al-Rashid A Caliph who ruled from 786 to 809. He was admired as a model ruler and viewed as the wealth and splendor
Seljukes People who migrated from Central Asia to the Middle East adopting Islam and tried to threaten the Byzantine Empire.
Tamerlane A military leader who led his army into the Middle East with the ambition to conquer the Muslims.
Caliph Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims.
Minaret Slender tower of Moscow, from which Muslims are called to prayer.
Muezzin Moscow official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer.
Sultan A muslim ruler
Omar Khayyám A famous scholar and astronomer, is best known to westerners as "The Rubáiyát".
Averroes A nickname for the philosopher Ibn Rushd who puts all knowledge except the Quaren to the test of reason.
Muhammad al-Razi One of the original medical thinker who wrote many books on medicine, including pioneering measles and smallpox.
Avicennia A standard medical textbook at European schools for those studying medicine.
Social Mobility Ability to move up in a social class.
Arabesque Intricate designs with curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textile, and glassware.
Calligraphy Fancy or stylized handwriting.
Sikhism a religion with mixed Islamic and Hindu beliefs
Babur Babur was a military genius, poet, and author.
Mughal Mughal is the persian word for Mongol.
Nur Jahan Nur Jahan is the wife of Jahangir. Jahangir left many details of government in her hands. Nur Jahan was one of the most powerful women in Indian history.
Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal was built as a tomb for Mumtaz Mahal when she died.
Sultanate land ruled by a sultan
Caste in traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born
Rajah elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient India; local Hindu ruler in India
Sinan A famous muslim architect who designed hundreds of Mosques and made a dome with a larger diameter and taller than the Hagia Sophia.
Isfahan The capitol that Abba built, which became the center of the international silk trade.
Millet Non-Muslim religious community. janizary - elite of Ottoman army.
Janizary Best soldiers, army elite.
Shah king in Persia (Iran).
Created by: giovannivillegas