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Chapter 11 Identify and Define

Mecca An Arabian town that is now a cultural crossroads because it is considered a holy city in the Islamic religion.
Bedouins Nomadic herders that inhabited the Arabian peninsula and used camels to cross the scorching desert in search of seasonal pasturelands.
Kaaba An ancient shrine that Muslims today believe was built by the prophet Abraham.
Khadija Kadijah was Muhammad's first wife, whom he was very loyal and faithful to. She was a wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan business when she married Muhammad. Kadijah was also the first Muslim convert.
Quran The Quran is the sacred text of Islam, and are believed to be the words of God that were given to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel.
People of the Book "People of the Book" are monotheistic worshippers that Muslims believe to be spiritually superior to polytheistic idol worshippers.
Sharia Islamic system of law that regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community.It does not separate civil and religious matters, and is uses the Quran as the final say on all legal situations.
Oasis A fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring.
Hijra Muhammad and his followers' journey from Mecca to Yathrib.
Monotheistic Based on belief in one god.
Mosque Muslim houses of worship.
Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca.
Jihad Effort in God's service.
Abu Bakr Abu Bakr was the first caliph, or successor to Muhammad. He struggled with keeping Arab tribal leaders loyal to Islam, however, managed to reunite the tribes once again.
Battle of Tours Under the first four Caliphs, Arab armies undertook many military conquests. Their push led them all the way through Spain. After conquering Spain, they attempted to move northward into France, however, were defeated at the the Battle of Tours.
Fatima and Ali Fatima and Ali were the daughter and son-in-law of Muhammad. Ali served as the fourth Caliph, but was assassinated in 661 in a struggle for leadership.
Sufi Sufi is a third branch of Islam. Sufis are Muslim mystics who seek communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals. They are respected for their piety and miraculous powers.
Umayyads After the death of Ali, the Umayyad family set up a dynasty that ruled the Islamic world until 750. The Umayyad family struggled to maintain their growing empire, so they had to rely on educated officials to help govern.
Abbassids The Abbassids set up a dynasty after defeating the Umayyad dynasty. (after capturing the capital of Damascus, Abu al Abbas invited the Umayyads to dinner - and killed them all) The Abbassid dynasty lasted until 1258. (golden age during this time)
Harun al-Rashid Harun al-Rashid was an Abbasid caliph who ruled from 786-809. He was admired as a model ruler, and was viewed as a symbol of wealth and splendor because he brought Baghdad to its peak.
Seljuks The Seljuk Turks migrated into the Middle East, adopted Islam, and established a large empire across the Fertile Crescent. Although the Turk leader controlled Baghdad, he left the Caliph as a figurehead. Threatened Christians, causes first crusade.
Tamerlane Tamerlane (aka Timur the Lame) was a Muslim Mongol leader that led his armies into the Middle East and conquered both Muslim and non-Muslim lands.His armies overran Persia and Mesopotamia before invading Russia and India.
Caliph A successor to Muhammad.
Minaret The slender towers of mosques, from which Muslims are called to prayer.
Muezzin Mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer.
Sultan Authority.
Omar Khayyám Omar Khayyám was famous in the Muslim world as a scholar and astronomer, and is best known to westerners for "The Rubáiyát," which is a collectrion of four-line poems that meditate on fate and the fleeting nature of life.
Averroes Also known as Ibn Rushd, Averroes was a philosopher from Cordoba that put all knowledge except the Quran to the test of reason. His writings on Aristotle were translated into Latin and influenced Christian scholastics in Medieval Europe.
Muhammad al-Razi Muhammad al-Razi wrote many books on medicine, including a pioneering study of measles and smallpox. He was the head physician at Baghdad's chief hospital, and taught young doctors to "treat the mind as well as the body."
Avicenna Persian physician, also known as Ibn Sina. He wrote the Canon on Medicine, a huge encyclopedia of Greek, Arabs, and himself had discovered about the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Social Mobility The ability to move up in social class.
Arabesque Intricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware.
Calligraphy The art of beautiful handwriting.
Sikhism A new religion formed from Muslim and Hindu ideas. It first rose in northern India through the teachings of an Indian holy man, Nanak. He taught, "the unity of God, the brotherhood of man, the rejection of the caste, and the futility of idol worship."
Babur Head of Turkish and Mongols that invaded India; claimed to be descent of Ghengiz Khan and Tamerlane. He was a military genius, poet, and author of a book of memoirs. Conquered and ended the Delhi sultanate; established Mughal dynasty.
Mughal The Persian word for Mongol. Also the name of the dynasty that replaced the Delhi Sultanate and was in power from 1526 to 1857.
Nur Jahan Wife of Jahangir, Akbar's son. Jahangir was a weak ruler and heir, but Nur Jahan was an able leader. Her shrewd political judgement was only matched by her love of poetry and royal sports. Most powerful woman in Indian history up until the 20th century.
Taj Mahal Sha Jahan, Akbar's grandson, commissioned the construction of the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his beloved late wife. It was designed in Persian style, with white domes and minarets that were mirrored in reflecting pools.
Sultanate Land ruled by a sultan.
Caste In traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born.
Rajah Local Hindu rulers.
Sinan A royal architect, a janizary military engineer, Sinan designed hundreds of mosques and palaces. His most famous building is the Selimiye Mosque at Edirne.
Isfahan Isfahan was the location of Abbas new capital, and was a center of the international silk trade. Isfahan flourished as a center of Persian culture.
Millet Religious communities.
Janizary The elite force of the Ottoman army.
Shah King.