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World History

Chapter 11

TermDefinition
Mecca Where Muhammad was born.
Bedouins A nomadic Arab in the desert.
Kaaba It is a stone that is considered the most sacred point inside the most sacred mosque.
Khadija The first wife of Muhammad.
Quran Sacred word of God.
People of the Book Jews and Christians
Sharia Body of laws.
Oasis A fertile area in a desert.
Hijra A journey
Monotheistic Believing in only one God.
Mosque Houses of Worship that people pray in.
Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca.
Jihad Effort in God's service.
Abu Bakr First caliph. Arabs refused to follow Abu Bakr and withdrew their loyalty to Islam. Reunited the Arabs.
battle of Tours battle between Frankish leader, Charles Martel, and a massive invading islamic
Fatima and Ali Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law.
Sufi A third tradition. Sought communication with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals. Helped spread Islam through missionary work.
Umayyads A family that set up a dynasty that rule the Islamic world until 750.
Abbassids Dynasty founded by Abu al-Abbas, which lasted until 1258. It ended Arab dominance ad helped make Islam a universal religion.
Harun al-Rashid Was the fifth caliph.
Seljuks The Turks that migrated into the Middle East from Central Asia. They adopted Islam and built a large empire across the Fertile Crescent.
Tamerlane Military leader for Persia.
caliph successor to Muhammad
minaret slender towers of mosques
muezzin a mosque official
sultan authority
Omar Khayyám Persian polymath, philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet. Was Sufi mystic.
Averroes mediæval Andalusian Muslim polymath
Muhammad al-razi was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist and chemist, philosophe
Avicenna Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age
social mobility ability to move up is social class
arabesque intricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware.
calligraphy fancy or stylized handwriting
Sikhism Religion that is the combination of Islam and Hinduism.
Babur a conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian
Mughal The Mughal Empire, self-designated as Gurkani, was a Persianate empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and ruled by a dynasty of Chagatai-Turkic origin.
Nur Jahan born as Mehr-un-Nissa, was Empress of the Mughal Empire as the chief consort of Emperor Jahangir.
Taj Mahal white marble mausoleum located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
sultanate land ruled by a sultan
caste social groups from which they could not change
rajah local Hindu Rulers
Sinan chief Ottoman architect and civil engineer for sultans
Isfahan It flourished from 1050 to 1722, in the 16th century under the Safavid dynasty, when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history.
millet In the Ottoman empire, a religious community of non-Muslims
janizary elite force of the Ottoman army
shah king
Created by: abbyreeves