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Chapter 11 ID&De

World History

Mecca The holy city that every Muslim must take a journey to at least once in their life time.
Bedouins Desert- dwelling ethnic groups divided into tribes.
Kaaba Cube
Khadija She was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad.
Quran The holy book of Islam
People of the Book Jews and Christians as regarded by Muslims.
Sharia The moral code and religious law of a prophetic religion.
Oasis A fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring.
Hijra A journey to the city Yathrib.
Monotheistic Belief in one God.
Mosque Houses of worship.
Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca.
Jihad Effort in God's service.
Abu Bakr Senior companion and the father-in-law of Muhammad.
Battle of Tours A battle fought by Frankish leader Charles Martel and an invading Muslim army.
Fatima and Ali Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law.
Sufi Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals.
Umayyads A dynasty that ruled the Islamic world until 750.
Abbassids A dynasty that descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle.
Harun al-Rashid A ruler of Baghdad who ruled from 786-809.
Seljuks A member of any of the Turkish dynasties that ruled Asia Minor in the 11th to 13th centuries, successfully invading the Byzantine Empire and defending the Holy Land against the Crusaders.
Tamerlane A Turko-Mongol conqueror and the founder of the Timurid Dynasty.
Caliph Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims.
Minaret Slender tower of a mosque, from which Muslims are called to prayer.
Muezzin Mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer.
Sultan Muslim ruler.
Omar Khayyam Sufi mystic, Persian polymath, philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet.
Averroes A medieval Andalusian Muslim polymath.
Muhammad al-Razi A Persian polymath, physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher and important figure in the history of medicine.
Avicenna a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Social mobility Ability to move up in social class.
Arabesque Intricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware.
Calligraphy Fancy or stylized handwriting.
Sikhism A monotheistic religion founded in Punjab in the 15th century by Guru Nanak.
Babur a conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor.
Mughal A member of the Muslim dynasty of Mongol origin founded by the successors of Tamerlane, which ruled much of India from the 16th to the 19th century.
Nur Jahan Empress of the Mughal Empire as the chief consort of Emperor Jahangir.
Taj Mahal A white marble mausoleum located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Sultanate Land ruled by a sultan.
Caste In traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born.
Rajah Elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient Indi; lovial Hindu ruler in India.
Sinan The chief Ottoman architect and civil engineer for sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III.
Isfahan The capital of Isfahan Province in Iran.
Millet In the Ottoman empire, a religious community of non-Muslims.
Janizary Elite force of the Ottoman army.
Shah King,
Created by: Michael14