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Chapter 11

Identify and Define

TermDefinition
Mecca A holy city located in Saudi Arabia which is home to the leading religion Islam.
Bedouins A nomad of the Arabic Desert
Kaaba A cube building which is the center of the Islamic religion and is the most sacred point in the world for them
Khadija First wife of Muhammad and no kids.
Quran central religious text of Islam and Muslims believe is the revelation of god
People of the Book Jews and Christians as regarded by muslims
Sharia Islamic canonical law based on the teachings of Koran
Oasis A natural pond that is spouted up in the desert
Hijra Muhammad departure form Mecca to Medina
Monotheistic The belief that there is one god
Mosque a Muslim place of worship
Hajj a pilgrimage to mecca that takes place once a year to celebrate their religion around Kaaba
Jihad A war or struggle against unbelievers
A bu Bakr The first Caliph or successor to Muhammad
Battle of Tours Muslims defeat the Byzantines from going farther into Euroupe
Fatima and Ali Shiites argued that only true successors are Muhammad's daughter and son in law Fatima and Ali
Sufi Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation
Umayyads set up a dynasty that ruled the Islamic world until 750
Abassids ended Arab dominance and helped make Islam a truly universal religion
Harun al Rashid in both Europe and the Muslim world ha-run was admired as a model ruler. he was viewed as a symbol of wealth and splendor.
Seljuks migrated into the middle east form central Asia. they adopted Islam and built a large empire across the fertile Crescent.
Tamerlane Otherwise known as Timer the Lame led his armies into the Middle East though he himself was a Muslim Tamerlane ambitions led him to conquer Muslim as well as non Muslim lands.
Calph a chief Muslim civil and religious ruler
Minaret tall slender building usually part of a mosque that has a balcony where the Muezzin calls the Muslims to prayer
Muezzin a man who calls Muslims to prayer from a minaret of a mosque
Sultan a Muslim sovereign
Omar Khayyam a Sufi mystic which taught things like astronomy and philosiphy
Averroes Andalusian Muslim Polymath
Muhammad Al Razi Studied many things like Omar but made a big impact and advancement in the world of medicine like Cataract expulsion.
Avicenna Studied many things like Omar but had 240 works 40 of which involved medicine.
Social mobility the movement of individuals between a social status in society
Arabesque an ornamental design consisting of flowing lines mainly used by Muslims
Calligraphy a unique way of writing.
Sikhism a monotheistic religion founded in Punjab
babur layed the basis for the Mughal dynasty and became the first Mughal ruler
Mughal Persian empire spreading over much of the land of India
Nur Jahan empress of the mughal empire
Taj Mahal shah jahan built by the mughal empire and one of their rulers, shah jahn, memories of his third wife
sultanate sultan is like the ruler of an empire such as the mughal dynasty
Caste A system where people are born and reborn again in different series of wealth
Rajah an Indian king or prince
Sinan Islamic word meaning spearhead or spear.
Isfahan capital of Isfahan providence located by Iran
Millet A plant that is grown on farms that is used to make alcoholic beverages.
Janizary a member of the Turkish infantry in-between the 19th and 14th centurys
Shah a title of a former monarch of Iran
Created by: dylanerwin