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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Identify and Define

TermDefinition
Mecca Was a busting market town at the crossroads of two main caravan routs. The birthplace of Muhammad and where Islam started.
Bedouins Nomadic herders of the arabian peninsula. Rode on camels across the desert.
Kaaba An ancient shrine that muslims today believe was built by the prophet Abraham. A very holy place of prayer.
Khadija Is the first wife of Muhammad, was a wealthy widow, and had a prosperous caravan business.
Quran Is the sacred text of Islam. Islam holy book.
People of the Book Jews and christians were considered "people of the book" who were relegiously tolerated more than the polytheistic people.
Sharia The islamic system of law. It regulated moral conduct, family life, business pratices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community.
Oasis A fertile area in the desert, watered by a natural well.
Hijra Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina.
Monotheistic Belief in one God.
Mosque Muslim house of worship and prayer.
Hajj One of the Five Pillars of Islam, the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime.
Jihad In Islam, an effort in God'd service.
Abu Bakr The first caliph, or successor to Muhammad. Reunited the Arabs together after Muhammad died.
Battle of Tours In the process of muslim expansion, they were stopped in France from going any further into western Europe.
Fatima and Ali Direct decendents of Muhammad. Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law. Shiites believed that direct decendents of Muhammad should be in control.
Sufi A third tradition in Islam composed of mystics who sought commnion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals. They helped spread Islam through missionary work.
Umayyads Is a family that set up a dynasty that ruled the islamic world until 750. Came into power after the death of Ali.
Abbassids Discontented Muslims found a leader in Abu al-Abbas, who captured Damascus in 750. They ended the Umayyad dynasty and founded their own which lasted until 1258.
Harun al-Rashid Baghdad reached its peak under his rule, and ruled from 786 to 809. He was viewed as a symbol of wealth and splendor. Viewed as a model ruler.
Seljuks In the 900s, migrated from central asia into the Middle East and adopted Islam. Pushed into Asia minor and messed with Christian pilgrims. This made Pope Urnban II, in 1050, start the first crusade. Rulled Baghdad.
Tamerlane In the late 1300's, a mongal leader led his armies into the middle east. Although he was a muslim, he pushed forth conquering muslim as well as non-muslim lands. His armies overran Persia and Mesopotamia before invading Russia and India.
Caliph Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims.
Minaret The slender towers of mosques, from which Muslims are called to prayer.
Muezzin A mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer.
Sultan Muslim ruler.
Omar Khayyam Famous in the Muslim world as a scholar and astronomer, best known for th work Rubaiyat.
Averroes Put all knowledge except for the Quran in the test of reason. His writings with Aristotle were translated into Latin and influenced the Christian scholastics in medieval Europe.
Muhammad al-Razi Was the head physician at Baghdad's chief hospital. He wrote many books about medicine including a book of a pioneering study on measles and smallpox. He challenged accepted medical pratices.
Avicenna Was a doctor of the Persian nobility at the age of 16. He created an huge encyclopedia of what the Greeks, the Arabs, and he himself knew about the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Social Mobility Ability to move up in social class.
Arabesque Intricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware.
Calligraphy Fancy or stylized handwriting.
Sikhism An Indian holy man, Nanak, blended Islamic and Hindu beliefs and created this new religion. He preached "the unity of God, the brotherhood of man, the rejection of caste, adn the futility of idol worship."
Babur Claimed descent from Genghiz Khan and Tamerlane. Was a military genius, poet, and author of a fascinating book of memoirs.
Mughal Bughal created this dynasty which ruled from 1526 to 1857. Dynasty forged a large empire from the Himalayas to the Deccan Plateau.
Nur Jahan The wife of Akbar's son Jahangir. She was in control of the government. She was the most powerful woman in Indian history up until the twentieth century.
Taj Mahal Shah Jahan created a magnificent structure when his wife, Mumtaz Mahal died at the age of 39. It was a tomb for his wife Mumtaz Mahal. It was designed in Persian style. It is perhaps the greatest monument of the Mahal empire.
Sultanate Land ruled by a sultan.
Caste In traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born.
Rajah Elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient India; local Hindu ruler in India.
Sinan A royal architect, a janizary military engineer, designed hundreds of mosques and palaces. His most famous building is the Selimiye Mosque at Edrine. He compared it to the most famous church in the Byzantine empire, Hagia Sophia.
Isfahan A magnificent new capital a center of the international silk trade. Created by Abbas In the Safavid Empires.
Millet In the Ottoman empire, religious community of non-Muslims.
Janizary Elite force of the Ottoman army.
Shah King.
Created by: merrickirvin