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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Identify and Define

Mecca An Arabian town of trade and commerce where Muhammad was born and where he started the religion of Islam
Bedouins Nomadic herders who roamed in search of scarce pasture land.
Kaaba An ancient shrine believed to have been built by Abraham
Khadija Muhammad's wife, and the first to convert to Islam
Quran The Muslim holy book
People of the Book Muslims' view of Christians and Jews, who worshiped the same God and were considered better than polytheistic idol worshippers
Sharia The Muslim system of law which applies the Quran to all legal matters.
oasis Fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring
hijra Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622
monotheistic Believing in one God
mosque Muslim house of worship
hajj One of the five pillars of Islam, the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime
jihad In Islam, an effort in God's service
Abu Bakr The first caliph that reunited the Arabs after Muhammad's death
Battle of Tours The battle in 732 where the Muslim armies were finally defeated, which halted the progression of their conquest
Fatima and Ali Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law
Sufi An Islam tradition followed by Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals, and also spread Muslim beliefs as missionaries
Umayyads the dynasty following the death of Ali, led by his family, and ruling the empire from thereon
Abbassids the dynasty established by Abu al-Abbas, who captured Damascus in 750 and ended the Umayyad family dynasty
Harun al-Rashid The honored ruler of Baghdad under which the city reached its peak
Seljuks The Seljuk Turks ruled over Baghdad while leaving an Abbassid caliph as a figurehead, and their actions led the Pope to start the First Crusade
Tamerlane A Mongol leader that came to rule over the Middle East
caliph succesor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
minaret slender tower of a mosque
muezzin mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer
sultan Muslim law
Omar Khayyám A Persian Muslim known for "The Rubaiyat," a collection of four-line poetry
Averroёs A Muslim philosopher that put all knowledge except the Quran to the test of reason
Muhammad al-Razi Head physician at Baghdad's chief hospital. Wrote several books on medicine and introduced new ideas on medicine.
Avicenna Famous Persian physician who wrote "Canon on Medicine".
social mobility the ability to move up in social class
arabesque intricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware
calligraphy fancy or stylized handwriting
Sikhism A blend of Islam and Hindu beliefs into one religion.
Babur A powerful leader of the Turks and Mongols who claimed to be descended from Genghis Khan and Tamerlane.
Mughal A dynasty of the Mongolians set up by Babur.
Nur Jahan The most powerful woman in Indian history, she was the wife of Jahangir with shrewd political judgement.
Taj Mahal A beautiful tomb built by Shah Jahan, for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
sultanate land ruled by a sultan
caste in traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born
rajah elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient India; local Hindu ruler in India
Sinan A royal architect who designed many mosques and palaces.
Isfahan A city that was the capital of the Safavids and the center of international silk trade.
millet in the Ottoman empire, a religious community of non-Muslims
janizary elite force of the Ottoman army
shah king
Created by: daviddunham