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Ch. 11 ID & Define

Mecca. The holy city of Islam.
Bedouins. Nomadic herders who rode camels through the desert to trade with other Arabs who settled in oasis towns.
Kaaba. The city where Muhammad returned in triumph in 630 C.E. where he destroyed the idols. Also an ancient shrine.
Khadija. Wealthy widow(s) who ran a prosperous caravan business.
Quran. The holy book of Islam.
People of the Book. Jews and Christians.
Sharia. An Islamic system of law that regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community.
Oasis. Fertile area(s) in the desert, watered by natural well or spring.
Hijra. The journey Muhammad and his followers left Mecca for Yathrib.
Monotheism. Belief in one god.
Mosque. House(s) of worship.
Hajj. Pilgrimage to Mecca.
Jihad. Effort in Allah's service.
Abu Bakr. A man who was determined to continue Muhammad's work and successfully reunited the Arabs.
Battle of Tours. The Muslim advance into Western Europe against the Byzantine Empire.
Fatima and Ali. Descendants of Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law.
Sufi. Muslim mystics who sought communication with Allah through meditation, fasting, and rituals.
Umayyads. Adapted to ruling cities and huge territories from desert life, relied on local officials, including educated Jews, Greeks, and Persians, and killed Ali & his son.
Abbassids. Muslims united under Abbass and his Abbassid Dynasty.
Harun al-Rashid. Caliph who ruled Baghdad from 786-809 C.E.
Seljuks. Migrated from Central Asia to the Middle East in the 900's, built a large empire across the fertile crescent, and their interference with Christian pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem led Pope Urban II, in 1095, to call for the 1st Crusade.
Tamerlane. A Mongol leader led his armies into the Middle East, whose ambitions led him to conquer both Muslim and non-Muslim lands, and overran Persia & Mesopotamia before invading Russia & India.
Caliph. Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims.
Minaret. Slender tower of a mosque, from which Muslims are called to prayer.
Muezzin. Mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer.
Sultan. Muslim ruler.
Omar Khayyám. Famous Muslim scholar and astronomer best known to westerners for The Rubáiyát.
Avoerroes. Ibn Rushd's European name. Ibn put all knowledge except for the Quran to the test of reason.
Muhammad al-Razi. A great medical thinker who studied both measles and smallpox.
Avicenna. Ibn Sina's European name. He was the author of Canon on Medicine, a huge encyclopedia of what the Greeks, Arabs, and he himself had learned about the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Social mobility. Programs to help people in need.
Arabesque. Intricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware.
Calligraphy. Fancy or stylized handwriting.
Sikhism. A blend of Islamic and Hindu beliefs created by Nanak.
Babur. A military genius, poet, and author of a fascinating book of memoirs.
Mughal. The name of the Empire created by Akbar. Persian word for, "Mongol."
Nur Jahan. Jahangir's wife.
Taj Mahal. A tomb built for Mumatz Mahal by her husband, Shah Jahan.
Sultanate. Land ruled by a sultan.
Caste. In traditional society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born.
Rajah. Elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient India; local Hindu ruler in India.
Sinan. A royal architect who designed hundreds of mosques & palaces.
Isfahan. A center of the international silk trade.
Millet. In the Ottoman Empire, a religious community of non-Muslims.
Janizary. Elite force of the Ottoman army.
Shah. King.
Created by: jackfulcher