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Honors W History 8

Chapter 11 Identify and Define

Mecca a pilgrimage center
Bedouins nomadic herders
Kaaba an ancient shrine that Muslims believe was built by the prophet Abraham
Khadija a wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan business, also Muhammad's wife
Quran the sacred text of Islam
People of the Book spiritually superior to polytheistic idol worshipers
Sharia Islamic system of law
oasis fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring
hijra Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622
monotheistic believing in one God
mosque Muslim house of worship
hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
jihad in Islam, an effort in God's service
Aku Bakr First caliph to Muhammad
Battle of Tours the battle in which the Muslim army was halted in Spain
Fatima and Ali Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law
Sufi Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation
Umayyads dynasty that ruled the Muslims until 750
Abbassids dynasty that ruled the Muslims until 1258
Harun al-Rashid ruler from 786-809 who ruled at Baghdad's peak, viewed as a symbol of wealth and splendor
Seljuks Turks who adopted the Islam religion and ruled over Baghdad
Tamerlane a mongol leader who was Muslim yet conquered Muslim lands
caliph successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
minaret slender tower of a mosque, from which Muslims are called to prayer
muezzin mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer
sultan Muslim ruler
Omar Khayyám famous in the Muslim world as a scholar and astronomer, is best known to westerners for The Rubáiyát
Averroës also known, Ibn Rushd the philosopher, he put all knowledge except the Quran to the test of reason
Muhammad al-Razi one of the most original medicine thinkers, also head physician at Baghdad's chief hospital
Avicenna equally as famous as Muhammad al-Razi, also known as Ibn Sina the Persian physician
social mobility ability to move up in social class
arabesque intricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware
calligraphy fancy or stylized handwriting
Sikhism the combining of the Muslim and Hindu religions
Babur conqueror from Central Asia, who became the first Mughal emperor
Mughal dynasty which ruled from 1526 to 1857, also "Mongol"
Nur Jahan Akbar's son's, Jahangir, wife
Taj Mahal a twin structure built as a tomb for Shah Jahan
sultanate land ruled by a sultan
caste in traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born
rajah elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient Indian; local Hindu ruler in India
Sinan a royal architect, a janizary military engineer who designed many mosques and palaces
Isfahan a center of the international silk trade that was made a new capital by Abbas
millet in the Ottoman empire, a religious community of non-Muslims
janizary elite force of the Ottoman army
shah king
Created by: amandagonzalez