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Chapt. 11 Vocabulary

Identify and Define

Abu Bakr The first caliph of the Muslim empire. He was one of the earliest converts to Islam and ascended to power after the death of Muhammed. He established Islam as a political and military force throughout Arabia.
Battle of Tours Often called the Battle of Poitiers, but is not the Battle of Poitiers. Battle of Tours was fought on October 10th between the forces under Frankish leader, Charles Martel, and a massive invading Islamic army near the city of Tours, France
Fatima and Ali Fatima is the seventh and last wife of Bluebeard; also a popular symbol for feminine curiosity. She is the wife of Ali. Ali is the husband of Fatima and the 4th orthodox caliph. The cousin and son-in-law of Muhammed.
Sufi a member of a Muslim group of people who have tried to experience God directly especially by praying and meditating.
Umayyads a member of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the Islamic world and Moorish Spain. The dynasty claimed descent from Umayya, a distant relative of Muhammad.
Abbassids a member of a dynasty of caliphs ruling the Islamic empire especially from their capital Baghdad and claiming descent from Abbas the uncle of Muhammad.
Harun al-Rashid Fifth Abbasid caliph of Baghdad (786–809) noted for the splendor of his court and his military campaign against the Byzantine Empire. given popular fame as a hero of The Arabian Nights
Seljuks a member of any of the Turkish dynasties that ruled Asia Minor in the 11th to 13th centuries, successfully invading the Byzantine Empire and defending the Holy Land against the Crusaders.
Tamerlane The name of the Mongol conqueror of the area from Mongolia to the Mediterranean; the ruler of Samarkand. He defeated the Turks at Angora and he died when he invaded China
caliph successor to Muhammad as political and religious leaders of the Muslims.
minaret slender tower of a mosque, from which Muslims are called to prayer.
muezzin mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer.
sultan Muslim ruler
Mecca the spiritual center of Islam and the birthplace of Muhammed. The holiest city of Islam and the place that contains the Kaaba.
bedouins nomadic Arab of the desert.
kaaba a cube-shaped building in Mecca, the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine, into which is built the black stone believed to have been given by Gabriel to Abraham. Muslims turn in this direction when praying.
khadija the first wife to the Prophet Mohammed regarded as the first convert.
Quran the Islamic sacred book, believed to be the word of God as dictated to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel and written down in Arabic. These touch upon all aspects of human existence, including matters of doctrine, social organization, and legislation.
People of the Book Jews and Christians as regarded by Muslims. The "chosen people" of the holy book.
Sharia The Islamic system of law that is an immense body of law interpreting the Quran. It regulates moral conduct and other aspects of Islamic life.
oasis fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring.
hijra Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622.
monotheistic believing in one God.
mosque Muslim house of worship.
hajj one of the Five Pillars of Islam, the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime.
jihad In Islam, an effort in God's service.
Omar Khayyam He is famous in the Muslim world as a scholar and astronomer. He wrote poems that consisted of four lines. He also meditated on fate and the fleeting nature of life.
Averroes The philosopher (aka Averroes) ,Ibn Rushd, put all of the knowledge except for the Quran to test. His writings about Aristotle were translated into Latin and they influenced Christian scholastics in Medieval Europe.
Muhammad al-Razi One of the most original medical thinkers. He was the head physician at Baghdad's chief hospital. He wrote many books, and especially one on measles and smallpox.
Avicenna The famous Persian physician Ibn Sina, but known in Europe as Avicenna. He created the "Cannon on Medicine" which is an encyclopedia of what he and others learned about diagnosis and treatment of disease.
social mobility ability to move up in social class.
arabesque intricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware.
calligraphy fancy or stylized handwriting.
Sikhism a monotheistic religion that was founded in Punjab in the 15th century by Guru Nanak.
Babur The head of the Turkish and Mongol invaders who poured through the mountain passes in India. He claimed descent from Genghiz Khan and Tamerlane. He was also a military genius, a poet, and an author of fascinating book memoirs. Set up the Mughal dynasty.
Mughal Mughal dynasty was founded by Babur that ruled from 1526-1857. Mughal is the Persian word for Mongol. The chief builder of Mughal was Babur's grandson, Akbar. Akbar placed Mughal on a firm footing.
Nur Jahan The wife of Akbar's son, Jahangir, who was in control of the majority of the details in the government. She was the most powerful woman in Indian history up until the 20th century.
Taj Mahal Building made for Shah Jahan's wife's death. It's Persian styled with white domes, graceful minarets that mirrored the clear blue pools, and verses from the Quran are written on the walls. This is known as the greatest monument of the Mughal empire.
sultanate land ruled by a Sultan
caste In traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person was born
rajah an elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient India; local Hindu ruler in India.
Sinan A royal architect, a janizary military engineer, and designer of hundreds of mosques. He compared his most famous building to the greatest church in the Byzantine Empire.
Isfahan The center of the international silk trade. It flourished under Abbas as a center of Persian culture. Abbas would walk around and mingle in disguise here.
millet in the Ottoman empire, a religious community of non-Muslims
janizary elite force of the Ottoman army
shah king
Created by: ChloeJernigan