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LD AP World 1 Ch 6

LD AP World 1 Chapter 6

Roman Republic The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.
Roman Senate A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic they effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire.
Roman Senate Under their leadership, Rome conquered an empire of unprecedented extent in the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. I
Roman Senate n the first century B.C.E. quarrels among powerful and ambitious senators and failure to address social and economic problems led to civil wars and the emergence of the rule of the emperors.
Patron/Client relationship In ancient Rome, a fundamental social relationship in which the patron provided legal & economic protection & assistance to clients & in return the clients supported the political careers & economic interests of their patron.
Roman Principate A term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries C.E., based on the ambiguous title princeps ("first citizen") adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship.
Augustus Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. (63 B.C.E.-14 c.e.)
Augustus After defeating all rivals, between 31 BCE. and 14 CE, laid the groundwork for several centuries of stability and prosperity in the Roman Empire.
Equites In ancient Italy, prosperous landowners second in wealth and status to the senatorial aristocracy. The Roman emperors allied with this group to counterbalance the influence of the old aristocracy and used the equites to staff the imperial civil service.
Pax Romana "Roman peace," connoted the stability & prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first 2 centuries CE.
Pax Romana The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cultural practices, technologies, and religious ideas.
Romanization The process by which the Latin language & Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire.
Romanization The Roman government did not actively seek to Romanize the subject peoples, but indigenous peoples in the provinces often chose to Romanize because of the political and economic advantages that it brought, as well as the allure of Roman success.
Jesus A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel who sought to reform Jewish beliefs & practices. Executed as a revolutionary by the Romans.
Jesus Hailed as the Messiah & son of God by his followers, became the central figure in Christianity, a belief system that developed in the centuries after his death. (ca. 5 B.C.E.-34 C.E.)
Aqueduct A conduit, either elevated or under ground, using gravity to carry water from a source to a location-usually a city-that needed it. The Romans built many aqueducts in a period of substantial urbanization.
Constantine (285-337 C.E.) Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion.
Qin A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). Framework was largely taken over by the succeeding Han Empire.
Qin Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society & marshalled subjects for military & construction projects, engendering hostility that led to the fall of his dynasty shortly after his death.
Shi Huangdi Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty & creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). Remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states, standardization of practices & forcible organization of labor for military and engineering tasks
Han A term used to designate (1) the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and (2) the dynasty of emperors who ruled from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.
Chang'an City in the Wei Valley in eastern China. It became the capital of the Zhou kingdom and the Qin and early Han Empires. Its main features were imitated in the cities and towns that sprang up throughout the Han Empire.
Gentry In China, the class of prosperous families, next in wealth below the rural aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel.
Gentry Respected for their education and expertise, these officials became a privileged group and made the government more efficient and responsive than in the past.
Xiongnu A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these "barbarians," as they called them, and finally succeeded in dispersing them.
Monsoon Seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean caused by the differences in temperature between the rapidly heating and cooling land masses of Africa & Asia & the slowly changing ocean waters.
Monsoon These strong and predictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors, and the large amounts of rain fall that they deposit on parts of India, South-east Asia, and China allow for the cultivation of several crops a year.
Created by: desilva13