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Chap.14,15,17

POCT,glucose monitoring, blood cultures, ABG's, etc.

QuestionAnswer
What is POCT? Point of care testing or near patient testing or bedside testing
What do POCT tests require? The use of gloves
Types of POCT tests.. Glucose, HgbAlC, Hemoglobin, HIV, FLU, Preganancy
What does HgbAlC do? It monitors glucose level (average of sugar over past 3 months)
What is glucose monitoring? Most rapid skin puncture, also with diabetic patients
What is Diabetes Mellitus? A chronic disease in which pancreas cannot produce enough insulin or cannot use insulin that it does produce.
What is capillary used for? Used to obtain blood for glucose testing.
What does SD mean? Standard Deviation
Quality Controls & Disinfecting Analyzers: Person must be able to.... *OBU 1.operate it 2.be familiar with instrument maintenance procedures 3. Understand quality assurance aspects of the instrument.
What are only certain phlebotomist allowed to do? Only phlebotomist with highly extensive training can do arterial blood draws.
What does the blood pH determine? It determines whether blood is too acidic or too alkaline
What are blood electrolyte levels referred to as? Na, K, Cl, Ca
What is Hematocrit? (Hct, packed cell volume) its different from hemoglobin
What is Hemoglobin? Safer method to detect anemia.
Cholesterol screening.. LDL: bad cholesterol
What is bleeding time? Its done to detect bleeding disorders.
To do bleeding time you have to... inflate the BP cuff to 40mm Hg for adults.
When are blood cultures usually collected? When a patient has FUO (fever, unknown, origin)
Blood cultures are usually collected in.. Yellow-topped tubes with ACD in it or blood culture bottles containing SPS (sodium,polanethol, sulfate)
What else can you use besides 70% isopropyl alcohol? You can use an iodine tincture (chlorhexidine gluconate) to prep arm and fully cleanse all bacteria from skin.
Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) What is GTT used for? To detect any abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes mellitus.
For GTT tests patients are allowed.. to drink water
For GTT tests you must obtain.. a first venous fasting blood specimen
Postprandial Glucose test: What does postprandial mean? Means 2 hrs later and is usually taken after patient finishes eating breakfast
Lactose tolerance testing is performed to.. Determine lactose (milk,sugar) intolerance.
When are glucose levels tested? After giving patient 50 grams of lactose
Lactose test is? Checking glucose level
What are arterial blood gases? they provide useful info about respiratory status and acid-base balance of patients with pulmonary (lungs) disease or disorders
What are 3 arterial puncture sites? 1. Radial-(artery of choice) most common 2. brachal artery- second choice 3. Femoral artery- last choice
What is the Radial ABG procedure? Thumb side should never be used because it has a pulse
What does the allen test do? makes certain that ulnar and radial arteries are providing collateral circulation
What do you have to do to do the allen test? apply pressure with thumbs to both sides of wrist while patient pumps fist
What side do you release first? Ulnar side
what is not required for allen test? tourniquet
what do you use for allen test? A prefilled heparinized safety syringe (1 to 5mL) with usually a 20 guage is used to prevent clotting
ABG's are done at what angle? 30 to 45 degrees
complications with arterial punctures.. hematomas form due to pressure exerted on wall of the artery
2 levels tested for therapeutic drug monitoring 1. peak-drawn when drug should be at highest level of concentration in the serum 2. Trough- levels are at lowest drug concentration in the serum
Peak times vary based on.. drug and how its given (IV, PO,etc)
Trough should be done... immediately prior to next scheduled dose
What guideline are there for blood donor collections? age, weight, physical condition must be followed for person to give blood
What is therapeutic phlebotomy? Intentional removal of blood for therapeutic reasons and its the withdrawal of large amount of blood
what do blood bank specimen bands have? Blood band ID numbers used in addition to other identifiers and include initials, date, time, and patients name
Toxicology specimens: 5 illicit drugs.. 1. marijuana 2. cocaine 3. heroin 4. hallucinogens 5. inhalants
Fact about substance abuse.. most addictions develop during adolescence
what are forensic specimens used for? legal proceedings and criminal investigations
6 forensic specimens... 1.rectal swabs 2. saliva 3. clothing 4. sweat 5. urine 6..skin
what do crime laboratories analyze? trace evidence (finger prints, hair, etc.)
what does CCF stand for? custody control form
what is chain of custody? process for maintaining control and accountability of each specimen from time its collected to time of disposal
how is specimen placed? in a tamper-evident seal and tracked every step of the way and will indicate if container has been opened
random tests are used commonly in.. safety or security sensitive jobs. (testing at unpredictable times)
Time to detect drugs depends on... metabolic rate, dose of drugs, how it was taken, and cutoff concentrations used by each laboratory
Things tampered/added to specimens.. 1.liquid soap 2. bleach 3. salt 4. ammonia 5. vinegar 6. baking soda
what is sensory examination? checking color or odor of specimen
what drug is most commonly used in neonatal drug testing? cocaine
What is BAC? blood alcohol concentration
BAC in US is? 0.08% or 80mg per 100mL in most states
nonalcoholic disinfectant used by phlebotomist is.. providone iodine and chlorhexidine
variables that affect BAC are: 1.sex 2. weight 3. amount of alcohol ingested 4. other foods ingested 5. other drugs ingested 6. time elapsed since ingestion
breathalyzers are most commonly used by.. law enforcement personnel due to ease of use, less invasive, and portability. Wide variability in accuracy of measurement.
Created by: z_garcia