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Meso Andean America

Teotihuacan City 30 miles northeast of Mexico city and existed long before the Aztecs, but at its peak 500-600 CE, it became known as the center of culture, economics, politics, and religion in the Americas. It had a large influence on neighboring civilizations.
The Great City of Tikal Mayan city with twin pyramid complexes existing in the Classical Age of the Mayans. The city housed more than 300,000 people at its peak and became a very important religious center for the Mayans, which included humans sacrifice rituals.
Mayan Civilization Based on the Yucatan Peninsula area, this civilization rose up primarily through religious centers, and weakened in power just before the Spanish invasions. It is best known for its developments in a writing system, arts and sciences, and a calendar.
Aztec Civilization Perhaps one of the most prominent Mesoamerican civilizations during the time of the Spanish invasions, they arose to power through effective means of agriculture, trade, and conquest. Their great city Tenochtitlan fell to Hernan Cortes in 1521.
Hernando Cortes Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec empire by conquering the capital Tenochtitlan (1517-1519) amd inciting civil war in the region.
Mayan Writing Phonetic and Syllabic system of Language; logograms
The Inca: Cuzco, foundations of earlier peoples, road system, mit'a system, quipu, admin centers, tax collectors, standardized production, Cusi Yupanqui
The Tiwanaku, Huari, and Nazca: south of Lake Titicaca; open, flat plain for Andean agriculture; by 200 A.D. Tiwanaku (Tihuanaco) became capital; altiplano (high plains) irrigated to support many people; religious centers; successor states (Huari and Nazca) kept alive many practices
The Inca Empire Trade: valleys: sweet potatoes, maize, manioc, squash, beans, chile peppers, peanuts, and cotton hills: white potatoes, quinoa, coca, medicines, feathers, and animal skins highland: manufacture and crafts, including gold working
The Chimu: succeeded the Moche; built: irrigation and water storage, trade; Chan Chan=capital; palaces, temples, admin offices, commoner housing; royal compounds: each king built his own, ruled, and buried there; conquered by Inca in 1470
The Moche: 200 B.C. to 600 A.D.; irrigation systems; monuments; tombs: social and political stratification, lord in shrouds and jewelry, and surrounded by servants, animals, and family(?)
Central America and Mexico Trade: capital of Tenochtitlán; great marketplace: under tight gov’t control; pochteca (guild of traders): exchanged processed goods for raw materials--gathered goods and military intelligence--protected by royal troops--own wards, own magistrates, and supervise
Francisco Pizarro Defeats King Ataphulla of the Inca people; room of gold ransom; established the vice royalty of Peru, and seizes the Inca capital of Cuzco
Mit'a system began under the Inca; local communities were required to contribute a set number of laborers for public works for a given period
quipu administrative and accounting records, tied knots on strings
Cusi Yupanqui crowned "Inca" (king-emperor) after uniting people into a nation in 1438; established a hereditary monarchy
Incan Road System 25,000 miles long; tunnels, causeways, suspension bridges, travel lodges, and storage places; sometime broad and paved, but were often narrow and unpaved
Incan Civil War 1525: Huayna Capac died--war between Huáscar and Atahualpa 1532: ended when Atahualpa captured and executed Huáscar
Conquest of the Inca 1532: Francisco Pizarro captured and killed Atahualpa 1533: conquered Cuzco Mid-16th Century: Spain established the Vice-Royalty of Peru
conquistadores Spanish soldier who invaded and conquered the New World kingdoms
encomienda system assigned the taxes and labor of local Indian populations to Spanish colonists who were to also convert the natives to Christianity
repartimiento the Spanish crown allowed colonists to employ locals into forced labor
haciendas agricultural estates producing commercial crops and livestock; employed free and indentured labor; produced imported products from the Eastern Hemisphere and local crops
silver mining Potosí mine in Upper Peru (discovered 1545) was the largest in the world; smaller mines in Mexico; 1556, used mercury to separate silver and ore; exported to Europe and the Philippines; used to pay for silks, tea, textiles, and spices from India and China
Effects of mining on locals enslavement and poverty
Who benefitted from the mining? Merchants of Antwerp, Genoa, Amsterdam, London, and Paris more than the Spanish
Why did others have more benefits then the Spanish? Spanish didn't have the commercial infrastructure and lacked the ships to carry the trade. Other merchants organized the necessary services (exchanged materials for cash, provided loans, arranged purchase of goods, and supplied shipping).
Tenochtitlan City The capital of the Aztec empire on an island during the time of the Spanish invasions. At its peak it was known for its great marketplaces where thousands of merchants gathered to trade, and its courts, guilds, temples, and schools.
Created by: nkim