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Protestant Reform.

The Protestant Reformation -World History

TermDefinition
Protestant Reformation Series of movements to change Catholic practice or start new churches.
Salvation Saving of the soul in the afterlife.
Simony Buying and selling of church offices.
Indulgences Reduction of time in Purgatory (some orders were selling them).
Inquisition System of Church courts set up to punish heretics (challengers of Church teachings).
Christian Humanists Authors who tried to combine religious values with humanist ideas.
Desiderius Erasmus Criticized Church emphasis on money, power wanted people to read the Bible for themselves.
Sir Thomas More Author of Utopia (perfect society) Equal education for men and women
Martin Luther German monk, critical indulgences, Wrote 95 Theses as a response.
The 95 Theses Luther's thoughts on indulgences and salvation nailed to the church door in his hometown.
"faith alone" Luther's main idea - true faith was the only thing required for salvation.
Peace of Augsburg Resolved religious wars in the HRE. Each state could chose it's own church.
John Calvin Swiss reformer. Known for the idea of predestination.
Predestination Idea that some had already been chosen to be saved.
Puritans English Calvanists; Wanted a "pure" church.
Henry VIII (8th) English King; created the Anglican Church to end his (1st) marriage and add to his power.
Act of Supremacy Made the English monarch head of the Church of England.
Elizabeth I (1st) Queen of England from 1558-1603. Stressed nationalism over religious issues.
Catholic Reformation Church responses to Protestant movements win back old followers, gain new ones as well.
Council of Trent Meetings of Catholic Leadership made some reforms, held to some old policies.
Society of Jesus Also known as the Jesuits. Missionaries spread Catholic faith worldwide.
Index Lists of books and authors banned by the Catholic Church.
Conditions within the Catholic Church that showed a need for reform -Pluralism (clergy holding many titles) left some dioceses without leaders -Nepotism (favors based on family) -Sale of indulgences implied that the rich got to heaven faster -More people wanted to read the Bible for themselves
Conditions of Catholic Church Overall sense that the Church was focusing on money and power, not as much about salvation.
Ideas and Teachings of Martin Luther Salvation comes from faith alone - not indulgences People should read the Bible for themselves All occupations are equal; priests are no better than others
Ideas and Teachings of John Calvin Some souls have already been chosen for salvation (predestination) No one knows for sure if they've been saved; hard work and prayers were signs. Don't let anything distract from doing God's will (leads to Puritan movements)
Challenges to Church in Germany Luther's 95 Theses Split among German states Peace of Augsburg
Challenges to Church in Switzerland Calvin's Teachings theocracy in Geneva
Challenges to Church in England Henry VIII Issue of divorce formed Church of England Act of Supremacy
Steps taken by the Catholic Church to "counter" the Reformation Strengthened the inquisition (esp. in Spain) Council of Trent- Ended sale of indulgences, reinforced other traditions Society of Jesus set up missions and schools to spread the Catholic message Index of books and authors banned by the Church
In the beginning, Henry VIII.... was a good Catholic Criticized Luther's teachings Named "Defender
Catherine of Aragon Was married to Henry's brother and was the daughter of a Spanish king. Henry married her to keep ties to Spain. Was not able to give Henry a son - heir. Daughter Mary Henry's 1st wife - marriage annulled
Anne Boleyn Henry's 2nd wife - beheaded
Jane Seymour Henry's 3rd wife - died in labor
Anne of Cleves Henry's 4th wife - divorced
Katherine Howard Henry's 5th wife - beheaded
Katherine Parr Henry's 6th wife - survived Henry
Edward After Henry's death (age 12) 4 year reign
Mary Tudor Married Philip II of Spain Persecuted Protestants "Bloody Mary" 4 year reign
Works/Authors banned for religious differences Martin Luther John Calvin
Scientists and Philosophers banned Machiavelli Bacon Locke Voltaire
Thomas Hobbes English author ALL his works were banned
What was required for salvation? daily/weekly attendance at Mass Sacraments (baptism, communion, etc) Tithing (pledging 10% of income to the church
What was the relationship between the church and feudal lords/kings? Church provided blessing and recognition of lords' authority. Lords/kings provided protection, land, tithing
The Black Death 1348- Wiped out 1/3 of Europe's population, seen by many as Beginning of God's final judgment. Caused people to question Church power and authority.
What factors set the stage for the Protestant Reformation? Anger at the Church practices Changing economy leading to changes in social classes Printing press spread ideas; more interest in translating Bible
How did Luther's teachings affect people and society in northern Europe? Many people left the Church and followed Luther's teachings Religious wars within the Holy Roman Empire
How were Calvin's ideas put into practice? Calvinists set up a theocracy in Geneva Calvinist rebellions in Scotland, France, and elsewhere Groups like the Puritans were based on Calvinist ideas
Who were the Anabaptists? Protestants who rejected the idea of infant baptism Believed infants were too young to understand its meaning
Why was the Church of England established? Pope refused to grant Henry VIII a divorce from Catherine of Aragon Henry VIII also saw opportunity to increase his own authority
What was the outcome of the Catholic Reformation? Europe remained mostly Catholic Some reforms were made within the Church Arts became more deeply religious
Why were the Jews and other people persecuted? They wouldn't convert to Christianity Widespread religious intolerance
Created by: mrsvaldez