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Chapter 7

Heart, diseases of heart, arteries, veins, vascular system disorders, blood, etc

The heart contains.. four chambers and is located slight left of midline in thoracic cavity.
What are the 2 upper chambers of the heart? The atria
Interatrial septum? Wall
What does the Intraventricular septum do? They devide the 2 lower chambers and ventricles.
Where are atrioventricular valves located? Between each atrium and ventricle so blood can flow in 1 direction only preventing back flow.
Coronary artery? Supplies blood to heart.
cardiac cycle: contracting phase? Systole
Relaxing phase? Diastole
When blood exits right ventricle what happens next? pulmonary circuit begins where it enters the right and left pulmonary arteries.
What is pulmonary circuit? pulmonary artery that carries deoxygenated blood.
Normal adult heart rate is? 60-90 beats per minute
children have... faster heart rates than adults
Why do athletes have slower heart rates? Because more blood can be pumped with each beat.
What is arrhythmia? Irregular heart beat/rate/rhythm
What is bradycardia? Heart less than 60 bpm
What is tachycardia? Heart rate greater than 100 bpm/fast heart beat
What is the average blood pressure adult reading? 120/80 120 over 80
Diseases of the Heart: Myocardial infaction (MI) Heart attack
Pericarditis Inflamation of pericardium
Nephritis increased creatinine levels
What is the cycle of the vascular system? Heart,lungs,heart,arteries, arterioles, capillaries,venules,veins,heart HLHAACVVH - hunter,left,heather, alone, after,crying, very, very, hard
What are arteries? Vessels that carry blood away from heart
Blood is... Oxygenated
Pulmonary artery Deoxygenated blood.
What do artery vessels have? A pulse
What are veins? blood vessels that carry blood to heart
All veins contain what kind of blood? Deoxygenated blood
Pulmonary veins contain.. oxygenated blood
What are the largest veins? Vena Cava
Median cubital.. First choice. Near center of the AC area and is usually large and located close to skin. Stationary. M C B
Cephalic.. second choice. Located on lateral aspect of AC area. Thumb side.
Basilic Third choice. Located on inner aspect of AC area/pinky side.
What do the capillaries do? These are the only vessels that permit exchange of gases (O2 & CO2) and other molecules between blood and other surrounding tissues.
CLSI standards allow... Allow venipuncture in back of hand and wrist if necessary.
Vascular system disorders: Aneurysm is... localized dilation, bulging, or weakened area of the wall of blood vessel. A P A
Phlebitis is.. Inflamation of a vein
atherosclerosis is.. hardening of veins associated with high cholesterol levels
Human bodies contain... About 5 qts. of whole blood composed of water solutes and cells.
Plasma is made up of... 55% of the blood
Formed elements make up... 45% of blood
What is plasma? Clear, pale yellow fluid comprised of 90% water and 10% solutes.
Solutes include: 1.Gases.... GMNPWVHD Gary made nate pull water very hard driving CO2 and O2
2. Minerals/electrolytes.. Sodium,potassium,& chloride. If these get low it can lead to dehydration.
3. Nutrients.. Glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol
4. Proteins Albumin, fibrinogen
5. Waste products urea,uric,acid
6. Vitamins
7. Hormones
8. Drugs
What is RBC? Red blood cells/erythrocytes that are the most numerous cells in blood.
What is WBC? White blood cells/leukocytes contain a nucleus and their main function is to neutralize and destroy pathogens in body. They protect it from infection.
Thrombocytes Also known as Platelets, are much smaller than other blood cells.
What do Platelets do? They help in clotting, forming temporary patch or plug to slow blood loss and contracting after blood clot has formed.
What is a platelets life span? 9 to 12 days
What is the difference in human blood types? the presence or absence of protein molecules called antigens and antibodies found on surace of RBC's.
What does serum not contain? doesn't contain anticoagulant additive. Once cerifuged they can't be remixed.
Blood disorders: 1. Iatrogenic anemia blood loss due to excessive venipunctures.
2. Leukemia Increased number of WBC's characterized by abnormal forms they are overproduced.
3. Leukopenia Decreased number of WBC's in blood
4. Thrombocytopenia Decreased or low number of platelets in the blood.
5. Polycythemia increased or high amount of RBC's in blood
6. Leukocytosis high number of WBC's in the blood
Common tests for blood disorders.. CBC: complete blood count with diff-refers to specific types of WBC's.
5 stages of hemostasis: Stage 1... Vascular stage: injured vessel constricts to supress blood flow
Stage 2... Platet phase: platets clump together to injured site to form plug.
Stage 3... coagulation phase: complicated series of factors are activated to form fibrin clot.
Stage 4... clot retraction phase: when bleeding has stopped. Clot retracts to bring torn edges back together.
Stage 5... Fibrinolysis phase: Final repair and regeneration of injured vessels occures and clot slowly, breaks up and dissolves as other cells carry out further repair.
Coagulation issues that affect phlebotomy.. Drugs such as heparin and coumadin (warfarin) suppress clotting factors and used to treat disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), emboly, thrombi, etc. These drugs thin out blood.
Hemostatic disorder.. Hemophilia: hereditary condition that causes abnormal bleeding and clotting factors do not work properly.
Lymph nodes... Tissue that removes impurities and processes lymphocytes. They trap and destroy bacteria and are removed during mastectomy.
What is lymphomia Any lymph tumor, benign, or malignant.
Created by: z_garcia



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