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P1 PHAR 7456

Physiology - Neurophysiology Exam 04 Part 01

QuestionAnswer
Cell body cell maint.
dendrites most synaptic contacts
axon or nerve fiber process from cell body to target
axon collaterals branches of axon
terminals and varicosities release of neurotransmitter
Myelin made by schwann cells and oligodendroglia
nodes of ranvier located b/w myelin forming cells
the conduction velocity along the axon is accelerated by? myelin
amount of acceleration depends on the size of the? axon
have multiple dendrite processes. most tract neurons and neurons with peripheral processes are? multipolar
have single "stem" that bifurcates to make distal and proximal processes that project to the target organ and the CNS resp. this is the typical cell type in dorsal root ganglia (sensory neurons) pseudounipolar
have 1 or 2 processes, resp. these types are mainly associated with special senses unipolar and bipolar
sensory neurons from body to CNS afferent
motor neurons CNS to effectors efferent
circuit neurons, connect neurons within the CNS interneurons
long axons from site of origin to distant target within the CNS projection neurons
Ipsilateral same side
contralateral opposite side
Bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system that usually contains both afferent and efferent fibers nerve
collection of axons with the origin (cell bodies) in one area or nucleus that projects to a discrete target tract
large collection of axons that may contain multiple tracts with many different terminations but found within a defined region. used in discussing spinal cord funiculus
discrete collection of axons, usually in the brainstem or ventral forebrain, that contains axons from multiple sites and interconnects multiple areas fasiculus
largest # of cells in the nervous system 90% glial cells
support neurons and maintain extracellular fluid glial cells
forms myelin sheath around neurons oligodendrocytes
maintains extracellular fluid, supports metabolic activity of neurons, assists formation of blood brain barrier astrocyte
macrophage-like cell that participates in immune function microglia
comprise lining of cerebral ventricles and regulate cerebrospinal fluid ependymal cells
severed axons in PNS can regrow to innervate the original target regeneration of axons
severed axons in CNS do not regrow to target, they may sprout new endings , but fx is not regained regeneration of axons
Cell body cell maint.
dendrites most synaptic contacts
axon or nerve fiber process from cell body to target
axon collaterals branches of axon
terminals and varicosities release of neurotransmitter
Myelin made by schwann cells and oligodendroglia
nodes of ranvier located b/w myelin forming cells
the conduction velocity along the axon is accelerated by? myelin
amount of acceleration depends on the size of the? axon
have multiple dendrite processes. most tract neurons and neurons with peripheral processes are? multipolar
have single "stem" that bifurcates to make distal and proximal processes that project to the target organ and the CNS resp. this is the typical cell type in dorsal root ganglia (sensory neurons) pseudounipolar
have 1 or 2 processes, resp. these types are mainly associated with special senses unipolar and bipolar
sensory neurons from body to CNS afferent
motor neurons CNS to effectors efferent
circuit neurons, connect neurons within the CNS interneurons
long axons from site of origin to distant target within the CNS projection neurons
Ipsilateral same side
contralateral opposite side
Bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system that usually contains both afferent and efferent fibers nerve
collection of axons with the origin (cell bodies) in one area or nucleus that projects to a discrete target tract
large collection of axons that may contain multiple tracts with many different terminations but found within a defined region. used in discussing spinal cord funiculus
discrete collection of axons, usually in the brainstem or ventral forebrain, that contains axons from multiple sites and interconnects multiple areas fasiculus
largest # of cells in the nervous system 90% glial cells
support neurons and maintain extracellular fluid glial cells
forms myelin sheath around neurons oligodendrocytes
maintains extracellular fluid, supports metabolic activity of neurons, assists formation of blood brain barrier astrocyte
macrophage-like cell that participates in immune function microglia
comprise lining of cerebral ventricles and regulate cerebrospinal fluid ependymal cells
severed axons in PNS can regrow to innervate the original target regeneration of axons
severed axons in CNS do not regrow to target, they may sprout new endings , but fx is not regained regeneration of axons
Structure of Nervous system long, direct pathway (often same as tract)
multineuronal, multisynaptic, polysynaptic structure of NS
presynaptic vs postsynaptic neurons in pathways can be presynaptic to some neurons and postsyn to others
ganglion in periphery
nucleus in CNS
central, butterfly shaped cord region. contains cell bodies of neurons and glia, dendrites, axonal processes. appears gray due to lack of myelin gray matter
surrounds gray matter. consists primarily of axons those with myelin give the color. these tracts connect regions of spinal cord or spinal cord with brain white matter
sensory (afferent) input reaches cord via dorsal roots, which consist of the axons of sensory neurons dorsal roots
contain cell bodies of the pseudounipolar sensory neurons dorsal root ganglia
motor (efferent) output leaves the cord via ventral roots, which consist of the axons of motor neurons. ventral roots
spinal nerves formed by joining of dorsal and ventral roots
31 pairs of spinal nerves divided into 5 groups 1. cervical 2. thoracic 3. lumbar 4. sacral 5. coccygeal
cervical hands and arms
thoracic chest area body
lumbar legs and feet
brainstem consists of? medulla oblongota, pons, and midbrain
responsible for basic mech of life: reg of cardivas adn resp fx, sleep and wakefulness, posture and balance, etc brainstem
relays and integrates formation from periphery to brain and vice versa brainstem
nuclei of most cranial nerves are located here? brainstem
central core of this is the reticular formation, involved in integrating information from all sensory modalities and affecting motor outflow. biogenic amine nuclei are located in the reticular formation brainstem
coordinates ongoing movements, learns new movements cerebellum
receives input from all muscles and other brain regions responsible for movement cerebellum
2 major components of the cerebellum cortex and deep nuclei
near surface, output cells from here project mainly to the deep nuclei cortex
deeper in cerebellum, neurons in these nuclei provide output from cerebellum deep nuclei
Forebrain consists of? cerebral hemisphere, cerebral cortex
Cerebral hemispheres major divisions of the brain
outer shell of gray matter in each hemisphere, about 3 mm thick cerebral cortex
consists of fiber bundles connect regions of cerebral cortex, and send information from cortex to other brain regions cerebral cortex
connects 2 sides of cortex corpus callosum
provide output from cortex, other neurons connect local regions of cortex pyrimidal cells
Cortex divided into 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
motor fx, personality frontal lobe
sensory, touch, interprets motor input and output parietal lobe
vision occipital lobe
auditory and memory temporal lobe
inputs to cortex arise from: 1. thalamus 2. other regions of cortex 3. reticular formation
major integrating region of brain, and is the area that makes humans human cortex
groups of cell bodies deep in within hemispheres; the most prominent are the basal ganglia subcortical nuclei
caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus basal ganglia
other nuclei associated with basal ganglia: substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus
traditionally known as regions that help control movements, these cell groups also are known to be involved with higher cortical functions, such as cognition substantia nigra and subthalami nucleus
Diencephalon thalamus and hypothalamus
major relay station to the cortex. most sensory and motor input from the body must relay through the thalamus before reaching the cortex. also is involved in arousal and attention thalamus
this is the major endocrine center, and is responsible for controlling body homeostasis hypothalamus
several structures contribute to this system which is responsible for emotional repsonses, learning and memory, and integration with autonomic responses to emotional stimuli limbic system
c shaped structures limbic system
brain consists of cerebral ventricles, CSF, blood supply, blood brain barrier
right and left , deep in cortex, connected by foramen of Monro to 3rd ventricle lateral ventricles
within the diencephalon connected by aqueduct of Sylvius in midbrain to 4th ventricle 3rd ventricle
b/w cerebellum and brainstem (pons and medulla) 4th ventricle
membranous coverings of the brain meninges
thickest and toughest part of meninges adjacent to skull dura mater
middle layer of meninges arachnoid
adjacent to brain and spinal cord pia mater
all 3 support the CNS dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
b/w arachnoid and pia, is where CSF circulates subarachnoid space
part of lining of ventricles; appears fluid choroid plexus
ependymal cells secrete CSF choroid plexus
CSF circulates through ventricles and spinal cord, and eventually returns to blood via the arachnoid villi, which are structures that project from the arachnoid to venous sinuses; these work similar to lymphatic vessels choroid plexus
brain receives about 15% of the total blood supply blood brain barrier
CNS requires glucose to produce energy; short term lack of glc causes neuronal death blood brain barrier
consists of endothelial cells of brain/spinal cord capillaries blood brain barrier
prevents large molecules from entering extracellular fluid; protective effect blood brain barrier
lipid soluble substances can cross, but not lipid insoluble substances BBB
due to this many drugs can not cross the ? bbb
Created by: oupharm2012