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Chapter 11 & 12 Major & Trace Minerals

Sources of Calcium dairy products, fish consumed with bones, green leafy vegetables, and fortified foods
Functions of Calcium Bone and tooth structure, nerve transmissions, muscle contractions, blood clotting, blood pressure regulation, hormone secretion
Calcium deficiency Increased risk of Osteoporosis
Groups @ risk of deficiency Postmenopausal women, elderly people, a vegan diet, lactose intolerant, kidney disease
Toxicity of Calcium Elevated blood calcium and kidney stones
Upper Intake Level of calcium 2000-2500 mg/day food and supplements
Sources of Phosphorus Meat, dairy, cereals, baked goods
Function of Phosphorus structure of bones and teeth, membranes, ATP & DNA, acid base balance.
Deficiency of Phosphorus Premature infants, alcoholics, elderly people
Toxicity of Phosphorus None likely
Is there an Upper Intake Level of Phosphorus? Yes! 4000 mg/day
Sources of Magnesium Greens, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds
Function of Magnesium Bone structure, ATP stabilizer, enzyme activity, nerve and muscle function
Deficiency of Magnesium Nausea, vomiting, weakness, muscle pain, heard changes
Groups @ risk of Magnesium Alcoholics, individuals with kidney or gastrointestinal disease
Toxicity of Magnesium Nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure
Is there an Upper intake Level of Magnesium? Yes! 350mg/day from nonfood source
Sources of Sulfur Protein foods, preservatives,
Function of Sulfur Part of some amino acids and vitamins, acid base balance
Deficiency in Sulfur None when protein needs are met
Groups @ risk of Sulfur deficiency None
Toxicity to Sulfur None likely
Is there an Upper Intake Level of Sulfur? N/A
What kind of mineral is Magnesium Major Mineral
What kind of mineral is Sulfur Major Mineral
what kind of mineral is Calcium classified as Major
what kind of mineral is Phosphorus classified as Major
what kind of a mineral is Iron Classified as Trace
what kind of a mineral is Zinc Classified as Trace
what kind of a mineral is Copper Classified as Trace
what kind of a mineral is Manganese Classified as Trace
what kind of a mineral is Selenium Classified as Trace
what kind of a mineral is Iodine Classified as Trace
what kind of a mineral is Chromium Classified as Trace
what kind of a mineral is Fluoride Classified as Trace
what kind of a mineral is Molybdenum Classified as Trace
Sources of Iron Red meats, leafy greens, dried fruits, whole & enriched grains
Functions of Iron part of hemoglobin, delivery of oxygen, myoglobin which holds oxygen in muscle, electron carriers in the transport chain, needed for immune function
Iron deficiency Iron deficiency anemia, fatigue, weakness, small pale RBCs, and low hemoglobin
Groups @ risk for Iron deficiency infants, preschool children, adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, athletes, an vegetarians.
Iron Toxicity Gastrointestinal upset & liver damage
Is there an Upper Intake Level of Iron? Yes! 45mg/day
Zinc Sources Meat, seafood, whole grains and eggs
Functions of Zinc Regulates protein synthesis, functions in growth/development/wound healing, immunity, and antioxidant protection
Toxicity of Zinc Decreases copper absorption & depressed immune function
Groups @ risk for Zinc deficiency Vegetarians, low income children, elderly
Is there an Upper intake level for zinc Yes! 40mg/day
Copper sources organ meat, nuts, seeds, whole grains, seafood, cocoa
functions of copper a part of proteins needed for iron absorption, lipid metabolism, collagen synthesis, nerve and immune function, and antioxidant protection
Deficiency in Copper anemia, poor growth, bone abnormalities
Toxicity of Copper vomiting
Groups @ risk of Copper deficiency those who over supplement zinc
Is there an Upper intake level of Copper? Yes! 10mg/day
Manganese source nuts, legumes, whole grains, tea
Functions of Manganese carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and antioxidant protection
Manganese deficiency growth retardation
groups @ risk for manganese deficiency None
Toxicity of Manganese Nerve damage
Is there an Upper intake level of Manganese? Yes! 11mg/day
Sources of Selenium Organ meats, seafood, eggs, whole grains
Functions of Selenium Antioxidant protection as part of glutathione peroxidase, sythesis of thyroid hormones; spares vitamin E
Deficiency of Selenium Muscle pain, weakness, Keshan disease
Groups @ risk for Selenium Deficiency populations of low selenium
Toxicity of Selenium nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, hair and nail changes
Is there an Upper intake Level for Selenium? Yes! 400 ug/day
Sources of Iodine iodized salt, salt water fish, seafood, dairy products
Functions of Iodine needed for synthesis of thyroid hormones
Deficiency of iodine Goiter, cretinism, intellectual disability, growth and development abnormalties
Groups @ risk for Iodine deficiency populations in areas with low iodine soil and iodized salt is not used
Toxicity of Iodine Enlarged thyroid
Is there an Upper Intake level of Iodine? Yes! 1110 ug/day
Chromium sources brewers yeast, nuts, whole grains, mushrooms
Functions of Chromium enhances insulin action
Deficiency of Chromium High blood glucose
Groups @ risk of Chromium deficiency malnourished children
Toxicity of Chromium N/A
Is there an Upper intake level Chromium? N/A
Sources of Fluoride fluoridated water, tea, fish, toothpaste
Functions of Fluoride strengthens tooth enamel, enhances remineralization of tooth enamel, reduces acid production by bacteria in mouth
Deficiency of Fluoride Increased risk of dental caries
Groups @ risk of Fluoride deficiency Population without fluoride water
Fluoride toxicity mottled teeth, kidney damage, bone abnormalties
Is there an Upper intake level for Fluoride? Yes! 10 mg/day
Sources of Molybdenum milk, organ meats, grains legumes
Functions of Molybdenum cofactor for enzymes
Deficiency of Molybdenum Unknown in humans
Groups @ risk of Molybdenum deficiencies None
Toxicity of Molybdenum Arthritis and joint inflammation
Is there an Upper intake level Molybdenum? Yes! 2mg/day
Created by: sthomp17