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Chapter 10 Water and Electrolytes

Why is water essential must be consumed for survival, blood is 90% water
Polar bodies of water H is(+) and O is (-)
Function of Water lubricates, cleanses, regulates body temperature, metabolic reactions such as condensation and hydrolysis, maintains acid base balance.
High arteriole pressure pushes water out of capillaries into the tissues
Low venous pressure brings water back into the capillaries from tissues
Thirst mechanism- 1st sign brain detects decrease in volume and increase of concentration of dissolved substances in blood.
Thirst mechanism-2nd sign Dry mouth = no water for saliva
Thirst mechanism- 3rd sign Dry mouth + brain = tells person to drink
Thirst mechanism- 4th sign Person drinks, increases blood volume and decreases concentration of dissolved substances.
What gland releases ADH? pituitary gland
How does ADH function? decrease blood vol and increase concentration vol ADH signals kidneys to absorb MORE water, less water lost in urine. ANTI-DIURETIC=(holding onto water)
Symptoms of dehydration fastest nutrient deficiency 1-2% = weight loss, heachache, fatigue, loss of appetite, dry eyes/mouth dark urine 5%= nausea & difficulty concentrating 7%= confusion, disorientation 10-20% = death
How many liters do men need? 3.7
How many liters to women need? 2.7
Factors to increase water intake weather, activity level, environment temp, humidity, diet
Electrolytes Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride
Function of electrolytes affects water distribution within the body, are essential to life, they are positive and negative need a proper balance
Functions of the Sodium Potassium Pump Active Transport System, maintains concentration gradient = nerve conduction and muscle contraction
Where are electrolytes regulated? Kidneys
What can cause deficiency in electrolytes? fluid loss and medications
What are causes of electrolyte toxicity? Renal failure & potassium supplements
Why is sodium toxicity rare? Fluid is usually increased to compensate
What is hypertension increase of blood pressure against the arterial wall
Sources of water drinking water, drinking other beverages, and wet foods
functions of water solvant, reactant, protector, transporter, regulates body temp and PH
Effects of a water deficiency... dk urine, weakness, low endurance, confusion, and disorientation
groups @ risk of water deficiency infants, people with fever, vomiting & diarrhea, elderly, athletes
What can occur with a water toxicity... confusion, coma, convulsions
Is there an UL for H2O? N/A
Sources of sodium Table salt, processed food
What is affected with a Sodium deficiency?........ (Hint: pump) MAJOR!!! (+) extracellular ions, nerve transmission, muscle contractions, fluid balance.
Groups @ risk of sodium deficiency severely restricted sodium diet, sweating excessively
Toxicity of sodium High blood Pressure
Is there an Upper Level Intake of Sodium? Yes! 2300 mg /day
Sources of Potassium fruits and veggies, legumes, whole grains, milk, meat
Function of Potassium (+) intracellular ion, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance
Deficiency of Potassium Irregular heart beat, fatigue, muscle cramps
Groups @ risk of Potassium Poor diets high in processed foods, people w/ diarrhea and vomiting, those taking thiazole diuretics
Toxicity Abnormal heartbeat
Upper level Intake of Potassium N/A
Sources of Chloride table salt & processed foods
Functions of Chloride MAJOR!!! (-) extracellular ions, fluid balance
Deficiency of Chloride Unlikely
Groups @ risk for Chloride Deficiency None
Toxicity to Chloride N/A
Upper Intake Level for Chloride 3600 mg/day
Created by: sthomp17