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KMC CH 14 Wars

KMC CH 14 Wars of Religion

Cuius regio, huius religio "Whose the region, his the religion;" principle established in the Peace of Augsburg which allowed the prince to determine the religion of his people
Philip II Devout Catholic King of Spain who inherited a religiously divided Europe from his father, Charles V; he tried to impose his jurisdiction over the Low Countries with disastrous results
El Escorial Philip II's palace complex in Madrid which includes a monastery, museum, and library; the Emperor built "The Grill" in honor of St. Lawrence and ruled most of Europe from a simple, monk-like "cell" within its walls
William I, Prince of Orange The main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish; in the Netherlands, he is known as the "Vader des vaderlands;" the Dutch national anthem, the "Wilhelmus," was written in his honor
Fate of the seventeen provinces of the Low Countries after Philip failed to subdue them The seven Northern provinces declared their independence from Spain and formed the Dutch Republic; the ten southern provinces remained loyal to Spain and formed the Spanish Netherlands (Belgium)
Political situiation in France which contributed to the rapid rise of the Huguenots The rising absolutist tendencies of the Valois kings threatened the independence of the landed nobility, who sought to maintain their independence from the crown by becoming French Protestants (Calvinist Huguenots)
The most populous and powerful European country in the sixteenth century France
Three political parties in France during the sixteenth century 1) The House of Guise (Catholic), 2) The politiques (a political party which played the other two parties against each other), 3) The Huguenots (Calvinists)
Catherine de Medici The Queen mother of France, an influential politique, the instigator of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
How long French Wars of Relgion lasted 18 years
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Bloodiest incident of the French Wars of Religion, it resulted in the deaths of 2,000 to 100,000 people, the destruction of over 20,000 Catholic churches, and the massacre of thousands of priests and religious
How the "War of the Three Henry's" ended Two of the Henrys were assassinated, therefore the surviving Henry of Navarre became king of France by default
Henry of Navarre He converted in order to be crowned King of France, rationalizing that "Paris vaut bien une messe" (Paris is well worth a Mass)
Edict of Nantes Law passed by King Henry IV, which extended toleration to the Huguenots and helped to end the Wars of Religion in France
Cardinal Richelieu Secretary of State under Louis XIII, he decreased the rights of the Huguenots under the Treaty of Nantes and centralized power around the king
La Rochelle Site of a Huguenot rebellion which Richelieu quickly put down and used as an occasion to decrease the rights of Huguenots
Major defender of Protestantism and incitor of rebellion against Catholic rule in Europe England
Presbyterianism The form of Calvinism that arose in Scotland, it aided England's consolidation of power
Mary Queen of Scots She tried for over 7 years (unsuccessfully) to save the Catholic Church in Scotland, and was later beheaded for treason based on forged documents
Elizabeth I English Queen who declared the practice of the Catholic faith a treasonable offense punishable by death
Seminary in Douay Located in the Spanish Netherlands, it trained missionary priests for England, helping to keep the Catholic faith alive in Protestant England for many generations
Why Mary Queen of Scots was executed 1) Elizabeth I, illegitimate daughter of Henry VIII, feared the Catholic populace would depose her and make Mary the queen; 2) Elizabeth feared that a foreign invasion from a Catholic country would attempt to put Mary on the throne
What happened to the Spanish Armada The large, clumsy Spanish ships were harassed by the smaller, better-equipped English ships, and finally, a storm off the coast of Ireland sank half the Spanish ships and drowned 2/3 of the Spanish sailors
Lasting effects of the defeat of the Spanish Armada The idea of an invicible Spain was shattered, and England became master of the seas, using her power to support the Protestant cause
How Catholic Ireland fared under the Protestant Elizabeth I In a six-month period alone, +30,000 Irish were starved to death; English troops butchered men, women and children; the Gaelic language was abolished; Protestant overlords were sent to establish and control large, agricultural plantations
Dates of the Thirty Years War 1618-1648
Defenestration of Prague Two of the Emperor's emissaries were thrown out of the window of the castle in Prague; this incident initiated the Thirty Years War
Capuchins This order is the branch of the Franciscans that wears the "capuche," or long pointed hood, as a sign of their desire to follow the Rule of St. Francis to the letter
Treaty of Westphalia Brought an end to the Thirty Years War, and an end to hopes of a united Germany
Created by: MAGISTRA56



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