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WC - Ch.19: Cold War

World Cultures - Ch.19: The Cold War

Modernization Building a stable government while developing a country economically
Superpower Nation strong enough to influence the acts and policies of other nations
Ideology System of thought and belief
Nonaligned Not allied with either side in a conflict
Interdependence Mutual dependence of countries on goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world
Summit Conference of leaders and experts from around the world
Terrorism Deliberate use of random violence, especially against civilians, to achieve political goals
Human Rights Basic rights and freedoms
Multinational corporation Enterprise with branches in many countries
Privatization Selling off of state-owned industries to private investors
Environmentalist One who raises an alarm about threats to the environment
Acid rain Form of pollution in which toxic chemicals in the air come back to the Earth as rain, snow, or hail
Global warming World-wide temperature increase due to raised levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries mainly in the Middle East that was forced to halt its oil exports and raise oil prices after the political crisis in 1973
Shantytowns Slums on the outskirts of a city that lack basic services, such as running water and sewers, and where drugs and crime are a constant threat
Fundamentalist One who stresses the fundamental, or basic, values of his or her religious faith. Many have sought political power in order to resist changes that undermine their beliefs
Liberation theology Movement in the 1960s and 1970s urging the Roman Catholic Church to take a more active role in changing the social conditions that contributed to poverty and oppression in Latin America
Feminist movement Movement that sought equal access for women to jobs and promotions, equal pay for equal work, and an end to sexual harassment on the job
E-commerce Business and trade conducted over the Internet
Genetic engineering Altering of the chemical code carried by all living things
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) An agreement signed in 1947 that tried to establish fair trade policies for all nations
International Monetary Fund (IMF) An organization that makes loans to developing nations
Helsinki Agreement A document signed by nations in 1975 that guarantees such basic rights as freedom of speech, religion, and the press as well as the rights to a fair trial, to earn a living, and to live in safety
Sputnik First artificial satellite launched into orbit by the Soviet Union
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) An agreement between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico, which is designed to lower trade barriers and promote the free exchange of goods and services (thus contributing to investment and economic growth)
The Green Revolution Created by scientists who used new technology to develop new genetically altered foods that could increase the harvest of crops and increase food production for the world's growing population
International Red Cross A nongovernmental organization (NGO) that provides humanitarian protection and aid to victims of war and natural disasters
Urbanization The movement from rural villages to the cities
Group of Eight (G-8) An international organization that promotes economic cooperation
Global North Industrialized nations of Europe, North America, Japan, and Australia (areas north of the Equator). They control most of the world's wealth, have a higher standard of living, are literate, and have basic health services and capitalist economies.
Global South Poor, underdeveloped nations, most of which lie in Asia, Africa, and Latin America in the zone between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. They have 75% of the world's population and much of its natural resources
United Nations An organization that was established in 1945 (at the end of WWII) to maintain international peace and security, promote human rights, foster social and economic development, protect the environment, and provide humanitarian aid.
World Health Organization (WHO) A UN agency that was established in 1948 to provide leadership on global public health matters. For example, it helped wipe out smallpox through its program of vaccinations and works with other groups to find solutions to other communicable diseases
Created by: tmgilbert