Normal Size Small Size show me how
KMC CH 13 Reform
KMC CH 13 Reformation
|Four abuses in the sixteenth century church
|Simony, nepotism, abuse of indulgences, and improper veneration of relics
|Abuse which resulted in the "Ninety-five Theses"
|Sale of indulgences
|Document which Martin Luther nailed to the door of the Cathedral of Wittenberg on October 31, 1517
|Dominican Cardinal,legate of Pope Leo X, who demanded that Luther admit his writings were wrong
|Diet of Worms
|Assembly called by Emperor Charles V in 1521 in order to secure a retraction from Luther and settle revolts throughout his realm
|Text which Luther translated during his time in hiding
|Where Duke Frederick of Saxony protected Luther for one year, and where Luther translated the NT to German and wrote the 3 pamphlets which would become the cornerstone of Protestantism
|Luther said man is justified by __________.
|Four theological principles Luther developed from his "justification" principle
|sola scriptura, sola fide, sola gratia, solo Christo
|Two sacraments which Luther retained
|Baptism and Eucharist
|Luther's belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist, as heat is present in a red-hot iron
|German word Luther inserted in Romans 1:17
|allein (alone); "He who through faith (alone) is righteous shall live."
|Book of the NT which Luther especially rejected
|James, because James says that "...a man is justified by works and NOT by faith alone." (This contradicts the very basis of Luther's theology.)
|Why the German princes supported Luther
|They perceived Luther's theology as a way to free themselves from the domination of the pope and the Catholic emperor, and as a way to enrich themselves with expropriated Church lands.
|Albert of Brandenburg
|Head of the Teutonic Knights, he used the Luthern cause to disband the order, marry, and declare himself Duke of Prussia
|How Luther justified his support of Philip of Hesse's bigamous marriage
|"What harm would there be, if a man to accomplish better things and for the sake of the Christian Church, does tell a good thumping lie."
|Luther's response to Peasant Rebellion
|He told the German princes to "Strike, slay front and rear; nothing is more devilish than sedition. There must be no sleep, no patience, no mercy; they are the children of the devil."
|Result of Peasant Rebellion
|100,000 men, women and children were killed; hundreds of villages were burned and crops destroyed
|List of Protestant principles presented at the Diet of Augsburg in the hopes of a Lutheran-Catholic compromise; the AC continues to be an important declaration of the tenets of the Lutheran faith
|Peace of Augsburg
|Document which establishes the principle of "cuius regio, huius religio" (whose the region, his the religion), ie, the prince decides the religion of everyone in his realm
|Describe Luther at the end of his life
|Irascible, crude, vicious, anti-semitic
|Second major figure of the Protestant Revolt; wrote the "Institutes of the Christian Religion," and established a rigid theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland
|Third major figure of Protestant Revolt and founder of the Reformation in Switzerland
|Establishes himself as the head of the English Church in his quest to marry a woman who would provide him a male heir
|Catherine of Aragon
|Spanish princess and first wife of Henry VIII; repudiated because she bore him no male heirs
|A secret Lutheran, he was named Archbishop of Canterbury by Henry VIII. He then nullified Henry's first marriage and presided over the king's illicit marriage to Anne Boleyn.
|Act of Supremacy
|Act of Parliament which proclaimed King Henry VIII the supreme leader of the Church of England
|Sts. John Fisher & Thomas More
|This bishop and this chancellor refused to sign the oath of allegiance to the Act of Supremacy and were beheaded
|Act for the Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries
|Act which allowed the confiscation of monastic properties under Thomas Cromwell; these lands were then given over to those nobles who were loyal to Henry VIII
|Daughter of Catherine of Aragon, she succeeded Edward VI to the throne of England and quickly restored the Church of England to the Catholic Church in Rome
|Daughter of Henry VIII, members of Parliament supported her succession to the throne in order to maintain their power and wealth. She issued the Thirty-Nine Articles which re-established England as a Protestant nation.
|Reasons why the reforming Council of Trent was delayed
|1) War between the major Christian kings, 2) Interference of secular rulers, 3)Protestant reformers who used their political and military influence to thwart a Catholic revival
|Council of Trent
|Called by Paul III, this council was in session at irregular intervals for 18 years throughout 3 papacies, and provided a detailed response to all Protestant theological positions
|Pope St. Pius V
|Spread the reforms of Trent throughout Christendom by living in a monastic cell as pope, and wrote In coena Domini in his attempt to ensure the independence of the Church against secular dominance
|Why Christians won the Battle of Lepanto
|Because of the rosary, superiority in gun power and a sudden shift in the wind, the Christians defeated the larger Turkish fleet.
|St. Peter Canisius
|"Second Apostle of Germany," he implemented the reforms of the Council of Trent and defended the Church against the spread of Protestantism in Germany
|St. Charles Borromeo
|Archbishop of Milan, he implemented the reforms of Trent and founded the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine in order to instruct the children of Milan
|St. Philip Neri
|The "Reformer of Rome," he helped bring back a spirit of piety to the central city of Catholicism, and he founded the Oratarians.
|St. Teresa of Avila
|Spanish mystic and Doctor of the Church, she founded the Discalced Carmelites and wrote treatises on the interior life: "The Way of Perfection," "Foundations" and "Life"
|Founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, this order helped to realize Tridentine reform. They take the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience to the pope himself.
|St. Ignatius of Loyala
|Founder of the Society of Jesus, he also wrote the "Spiritual Exercises"