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KMC CH 13 Reform

KMC CH 13 Reformation

Four abuses in the sixteenth century church Simony, nepotism, abuse of indulgences, and improper veneration of relics
Abuse which resulted in the "Ninety-five Theses" Sale of indulgences
"Ninety-five theses" Document which Martin Luther nailed to the door of the Cathedral of Wittenberg on October 31, 1517
Cajetan Dominican Cardinal,legate of Pope Leo X, who demanded that Luther admit his writings were wrong
Diet of Worms Assembly called by Emperor Charles V in 1521 in order to secure a retraction from Luther and settle revolts throughout his realm
Text which Luther translated during his time in hiding New Testament
Wartburg Castle Where Duke Frederick of Saxony protected Luther for one year, and where Luther translated the NT to German and wrote the 3 pamphlets which would become the cornerstone of Protestantism
Luther said man is justified by __________. Faith alone
Four theological principles Luther developed from his "justification" principle sola scriptura, sola fide, sola gratia, solo Christo
Two sacraments which Luther retained Baptism and Eucharist
Consubstantiation Luther's belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist, as heat is present in a red-hot iron
German word Luther inserted in Romans 1:17 allein (alone); "He who through faith (alone) is righteous shall live."
Book of the NT which Luther especially rejected James, because James says that "...a man is justified by works and NOT by faith alone." (This contradicts the very basis of Luther's theology.)
Why the German princes supported Luther They perceived Luther's theology as a way to free themselves from the domination of the pope and the Catholic emperor, and as a way to enrich themselves with expropriated Church lands.
Albert of Brandenburg Head of the Teutonic Knights, he used the Luthern cause to disband the order, marry, and declare himself Duke of Prussia
How Luther justified his support of Philip of Hesse's bigamous marriage "What harm would there be, if a man to accomplish better things and for the sake of the Christian Church, does tell a good thumping lie."
Luther's response to Peasant Rebellion He told the German princes to "Strike, slay front and rear; nothing is more devilish than sedition. There must be no sleep, no patience, no mercy; they are the children of the devil."
Result of Peasant Rebellion 100,000 men, women and children were killed; hundreds of villages were burned and crops destroyed
Augsburg Confession List of Protestant principles presented at the Diet of Augsburg in the hopes of a Lutheran-Catholic compromise; the AC continues to be an important declaration of the tenets of the Lutheran faith
Peace of Augsburg Document which establishes the principle of "cuius regio, huius religio" (whose the region, his the religion), ie, the prince decides the religion of everyone in his realm
Describe Luther at the end of his life Irascible, crude, vicious, anti-semitic
John Calvin Second major figure of the Protestant Revolt; wrote the "Institutes of the Christian Religion," and established a rigid theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland
Ulrich Zwingli Third major figure of Protestant Revolt and founder of the Reformation in Switzerland
Henry VIII Establishes himself as the head of the English Church in his quest to marry a woman who would provide him a male heir
Catherine of Aragon Spanish princess and first wife of Henry VIII; repudiated because she bore him no male heirs
Thomas Cranmer A secret Lutheran, he was named Archbishop of Canterbury by Henry VIII. He then nullified Henry's first marriage and presided over the king's illicit marriage to Anne Boleyn.
Act of Supremacy Act of Parliament which proclaimed King Henry VIII the supreme leader of the Church of England
Sts. John Fisher & Thomas More This bishop and this chancellor refused to sign the oath of allegiance to the Act of Supremacy and were beheaded
Act for the Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries Act which allowed the confiscation of monastic properties under Thomas Cromwell; these lands were then given over to those nobles who were loyal to Henry VIII
Mary I Daughter of Catherine of Aragon, she succeeded Edward VI to the throne of England and quickly restored the Church of England to the Catholic Church in Rome
Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry VIII, members of Parliament supported her succession to the throne in order to maintain their power and wealth. She issued the Thirty-Nine Articles which re-established England as a Protestant nation.
Reasons why the reforming Council of Trent was delayed 1) War between the major Christian kings, 2) Interference of secular rulers, 3)Protestant reformers who used their political and military influence to thwart a Catholic revival
Council of Trent Called by Paul III, this council was in session at irregular intervals for 18 years throughout 3 papacies, and provided a detailed response to all Protestant theological positions
Pope St. Pius V Spread the reforms of Trent throughout Christendom by living in a monastic cell as pope, and wrote In coena Domini in his attempt to ensure the independence of the Church against secular dominance
Why Christians won the Battle of Lepanto Because of the rosary, superiority in gun power and a sudden shift in the wind, the Christians defeated the larger Turkish fleet.
St. Peter Canisius "Second Apostle of Germany," he implemented the reforms of the Council of Trent and defended the Church against the spread of Protestantism in Germany
St. Charles Borromeo Archbishop of Milan, he implemented the reforms of Trent and founded the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine in order to instruct the children of Milan
St. Philip Neri The "Reformer of Rome," he helped bring back a spirit of piety to the central city of Catholicism, and he founded the Oratarians.
St. Teresa of Avila Spanish mystic and Doctor of the Church, she founded the Discalced Carmelites and wrote treatises on the interior life: "The Way of Perfection," "Foundations" and "Life"
Jesuits Founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, this order helped to realize Tridentine reform. They take the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience to the pope himself.
St. Ignatius of Loyala Founder of the Society of Jesus, he also wrote the "Spiritual Exercises"
Created by: MAGISTRA56
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