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Chapter 4 Carbs, Sugars, Starches, Fiber

Refined Carbs Carbohydrates that have been processed and have seperated from vit, min, and fiber. Example: corn into cornflakes
Unrefined Carbs Carbohydrates that are at its raw form or natural state. Example: fresh fruit, dairy, or whole grains
List the 3 layers of a Whole Grain from superficial to deep. Bran Layer: many vitamins and minerals Endosperm: Lg part, protein, little vit & min Germ: "embryo", source of oil & vit E
Carbohydrates compared to other nutrients in a diet Basis of most modern diets and accounts for 45-65% of my plate guidelines.
Whole vs Refined refined grains are mostly the endosperm & starch and maybe enriched with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and fortified with folate. DO NOT contain madnesium, vit E, and some B vits or other nutrients of whole grains.
Photosynthesis Plants convert glucose to starch. Humans eat plants convert starch to glucose.
Monosaccharide Single sugar molecule
Disaccharide Two molecules linked together
Hydrolysis Chemical reaction that breaks down sugar molecules
Condensation Reaction Chemical reaction that links two sugar molecules together
Maltose Glucose + glucose - starch - formed in digestive tract when starch is digested
Lactose Galactose + glucose - dairy
Sucrose Glucose + fructose - table sugar
Galactose Milk or dairy
Glucose Blood "blood sugar"
Fructose Plants - fruits, veggies, honey
Complex Carbohydrates Many monosaccharides linked together in chains
Oligosaccharides Short chains of less than 10
Polysaccharide Long chains of monosaccharides and includes glycogen
Glycogen Found in animals, starch, and fiber found in plants. How animals store carbs.
Dietary Fiber Complex carbs that can NOT be digested by human enzymes and can NOT be absorbed.
Soluble Fiber Fiber dissolves in water.
Insoluble Fiber Does not dissolve in water. Can be added to processed food to thicken and reduce fat. *add bulk*
Good sources of soluble fiber examples: legumes, prunes, apricots, raisins, oranges, bananas, oats, apples, eggplant, flaxseed
Good sources of insoluble fiber examples: wheat bran, whole wheat bread, broccoli, corn, eggplant, apples skins, nuts & seeds
Lactose Intolerance Enzyme lactase is needed to digest lactose. Must be digested in small intestine, if not then moves to lg intestine. Causes cramping, abdominal distention and diarrhea.
Indigestible carbs Resistant starch, Oligosaccharides, and fiber, are not digested and can affect transit time, type of instestinal microflora, intestinal gas, and nutrient absorption.
Fiber inhibits absorption of Cholesterol & bile (soluble fiber) Minerals, Zinc, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron Slows absorption of glucose by increasing volume and thickness of food *bulk*
Regulation of Blood *sugar* Glucose concentration of glucose is regulated by the liver and by enzymes secreted from the pancreas.
Glycemic Response How quickly and how high glucose rises after carbohydrate consumption.
Glycemic Index Ranking of how a food affects the glycemic response
Glycemic Load Calculated by a food's glycemic index by the amount of available carbs in a serving.
Cellulalr Respiration One glucose molecule creates 38 molecules of ATP, 6 molecules of H2O, 6 molecules of carbon dioxide.
Diabetes Mellitus Leading cause of blindness and accounts for 44% of new cases of kidney failure in US.
Gestational Diabetes Occurs in women who are pregnant and increases risk of type 2 diabetes later in life.
2 Types of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Insulin is not made in body Type 2: Insulin resistant
Immediate Diabetic symptoms excessive thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, weight gain.
Long term Complications of Diabetes damage to heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes & nervous system. Infections are more common in patients with diabetes and amputations may be necessary.
Treatment of Diabetes Keeping Blood sugar in normal ranges. Exercise, Diet, Blood glucose checks, and medications.
Hypoglycemia Over secretions of insulin in response to carb intake. Treatment through frequent small meals including protein.
Fasting Hypoglycemia Abnormal insulin secretions not related to food intake.
Carbs and Dental care Sucrose + Bacteria --> Plaque formation + Acid production --> Erodes dental enamel & formation of caries
Low Carb diets Produce more ketones which help suppress appetite.
Carbs and heart disease diets high in fiber found to reduce heart disease because water soluble fiber binds to cholesterol and reduces absorption of cholesterol.
Fiber and Bowel Disorders high in fiber and indigestible carbs can relieve or prevent hemorrhoids, diverticulosis, diverticulitis, and constipation.
Carb intake formula Total # of Kcals x 4grams = 4(total Kcal) 4(total Kcal) ------------------------ x 100 = % of energy total Kcals in total diet from carbs
High Fiber 4-5 grams
Medium Fiber 2-3 grams
Low Fiber 0.5-1 gram
Created by: sthomp17