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Chapter 4: Greece

TermDefinition
epic poem a long poem that tells the story of a hero
arete the qualities of excellence that a hero tries to win in a contest
polis a Greek city-state
acropolis a fortified gathering at the top of a hill
agora a marketplace
phalanx a rectangular marching formation
tyrant a ruler who took power from the aristocrats and maintained power by force
democracy government by the people, either directly or through representatives
oligarchy a type of government in which a few people have control
helot a captive of ancient Sparta
ephor one of five people elected each year in ancient Sparta who were responsible for education and the conduct of all citizens
Age of Pericles the period between 461 and 429 B.C. when Pericles was in control of Athens and Athens reached its height of power
direct democracy a type of government in which all male citizens could vote on important issues
ostracism in Athens, the process of temporarily banning a politician from the city by popular vote
oracle a sacred shrine where a god or goddess was said to reveal the future through a priest or priestess
tragedy a type of drama in which the main character fails or ends in sorrow due to a fatal flaw
philosophy a system of thought
Socratic method the method of teaching used by Socrates using a question and answer technique
Hellenistic Era the time of Alexander the Great when Greek ideas and language traveled to the non-Greek world
Philip II He conquered Greece for Macedonia and was Alexander the Great's father
Persian Wars This war was between the Greeks and Persians resulting in the Persians being kicked out of the Greek city-states
Peloponnesian War A war between Sparta and Athens in which Sparta ended up victorious and Athens lost their empire
Herodotus He is known as the "first historian" and worked to record history
Alexander the Great He conquered the Persian Empire and is known for the blending of Greek and Persian customs
Aristotle He was a student of Plato and was interested in effective government
Socrates He was an important Greek philosopher who encouraged questioning
Delian League This was an alliance between the Greek city-states formed to defeat the Persians and which Athens came to dominate
Homer He was a Greek poet who wrote the Odyssey and Iliad
Achilles The Iliad was about this legendary hero
Mycenae This was the first Greek city-state which flourished between 1600 and 1100 B.C.
Mediterranean The Greek peninsula and islands are in this sea
Dark Age of Greece During this time, many Greeks left the mainland and population and food production declined
Sparta This city-state was most focused on the military
Athens This city-state was known as the center of Greek culture and had the largest population of the city-states
citizens Free, adult males were considered to be this
Olympic games This festival was held to honor the two main Greek gods who lived on Mount Olympus
Parthenon This was a Greek temple built on the Acropolis and shows the main features of Greek architecture
Plato He was a famous Greek philosopher who was a student of Socrates and wrote about his ideas of government in "The Republic"
Sophocles Greek playwright famous for Oedipus
Archimedes Famous Greek mathematician and inventor
Pericles He ruled Athens during its Golden Age
Darius Persian ruler who divided the empire into 20 different districts
Created by: Mrs. Marquardt