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WH 10: Unit 4

Absolutism & the Enlightenment

Absolute monarchies Governments in which kings and queens have total power over their country meaning power is centralized which they justify with divine right. Power is passed from father to son in this type of government.
Centralized government (centralized power) When one individual has complete and total control over every aspect of society
Divine right The right to rule comes from God. Absolute monarchs claimed they had this in order to justify their absolute monarchy.
Louis XIV French king who is known for building the Palace of Versailles and for limiting the power of the nobles and the clergy. Known as "the boy king" and the "sun king".
Estates General Legislative body of France made up of the nobles who voted on and passed laws for the French people. The power of this body was decreased by Louis XIV.
Palace of Versailles Grand palace outside of Paris that was built by Louis XIV. Louis XIV and the royal family as well as the nobles lived here.
Peter the Great Russia's first absolute monarch who wanted to modernize and westernize Russia. He is also famous for conquering new territory for Russia and building the city of St. Petersburg
Westernization To modernize and make more like Western Europe. Peter the Great used this idea to help Russia build a navy, conquer new territory, and improve their armed forces.
St. Petersburg City built on warm waterways by Peter the Great of Russia.
Czar Russian equivalent of a king or emperor.
James I King of England that continually disbanded Parliament. Father of Charles I who taught his son that he was and had the divine right to rule.
Parliament Legislative body of England made up of the nobles who voted on and passed laws for the English people. Charles I tried to limit the power of Parliament.
Magna Carta Document of England that said that the law of England was as important as the law of the King
Elizabeth I Queen of England that re-established the Anglican Church. Since she never married or had kids James I a cousin of hers will take over the English throne when she dies.
Charles I Son of James I that disbanded Parliament. When Parliament fights back he is forced to fight the English Civil war which he loses and becomes the first king to be executed publicly after being tried for treason.
English Civil War War fought between Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans and Charles I and the Royalists. Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans (parliament's supporters) win the war. Then they try and execute Charles I.
Oliver Cromwell Lord Protectorate that won the English Civil War and set up a military dictatorship.
Military Dictatorship Government in which one military leader is in charge of a country. After the English Civil War this is the type of government that was set up in England run by Oliver Cromwell. It was very strict.
Restoration After the rule of Cromwell, when the people of England re-established the absolute monarchy with Charles II
Charles II Son of Charles I (the King who lost the English Civil War and then was executed), he was the King of England during the Restoration, who was hated because he spent too much money and because he was Catholic
Glorious Revolution Bloodless revolution that brought William and Mary to the English throne. It was made possible with the signing of the English Bill of Rights.
William & Mary The King and Queen of England that came into power once they agreed to sign the English Bill of Rights. They reigned after the Glorious Revolution
English Bill of Rights Document that made it illegal for the King and Queen to disband Parliament. It protected the rights of Parliament and the citizens and limited the power of the King and Queen.
Constitutional Monarchy Type of government in which there is a monarchy a King or Queen in charge of a country however their power is limited by a written document: a constitution.
Enlightenment Time period in which philosophers and thinkers changed and developed new ideas about law and government.
Age of Reason The nickname of the Enlightenment. Refers to the idea that "reason" is like logic and rational thinking
Philosophes Name for the Enlightenment thinkers
Thomas Hobbes English philosopher who wrote Leviathan and believed that people are terrible, cruel, like animals if left to govern themselves, and as a result they need an absolute monarchy to control them and maintain order in society
Leviathan Major work of Thomas Hobbes
John Locke English philosopher who wrote the Two Treatises on Government. He believed that every individual has natural rights and that individuals have the right to overthrow a government if it is corrupt.
Two Treatises on Government Major work of John Locke
Natural Rights Life, liberty, and property. The idea comes from John Locke and would be adapted by Thomas Jefferson to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Montesquieu French philosopher who wrote the Spirit of the Laws. He believed that the best form of government included both a separation of powers as well as checks and balances.
The Spirit of the Laws Major work of Montesquieu
Voltaire French philosopher who wrote many famous works including Candide. He believed in freedom of speech and religious tolerance.
Candide Major work of Voltaire
Jean-Jacques Rousseau French philosopher who wrote the Social Contract. He believed that government is a contract between the people and the government. The people agree to give up some of their rights in order to receive protection from their government.
The Social Contract Major work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Salons Gatherings for the educated and wealthy class, typically hosted by wealthy women, where people debated philosophy and government. Enlightenment ideas spread through these gatherings.
Thomas Jefferson Author of the Declaration of Independence, who used many of the Enlightenment thinkers ideas.
Declaration of Independence U.S. document that uses John Locke's ideas of natural rights, just changes them slightly
U.S. Constitution U.S. document that used Montesquieu's ideas on the separation of powers and checks and balances to split the power of the national government into 3 separate branches that check and balance each other.
U.S. Bill of Rights Document that used John Locke's ideas of natural rights in order to suggest what rights every American is guaranteed by their government.
Johann Sebastian Bach Composer of Baroque music
Baroque Style Music Dark and loud music that used pipe organs and harpsicords
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Composer of Classical style music
Classical Style Music Lighter music that used pianos, flutes, violins, and sometimes even whole orchestras
All-weather roads This invention allowed for improved trade throughout the year.
New farming tools Allowed for the increase in farming and agriculture
New ship design Helped lower the cost of transporting goods by sea
Created by: thompsonce