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World History

"The Renaissance" Topic 5

TermDefinition
Humanism the Renaissance intellectual movement that studied classical cultures to increase understanding of their own times
Humanities subjects such as grammar, poetry, rhetoric, and history
Francesco Petrarch Florentine humanist, poet, and scholar who assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts to encourage learning
Perspective the artistic technique that allows an artist to portray depth and three-dimensional qualities by making distant objects smaller
Leonardo Da Vinci artist, scientist, and inventor best known for the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper and sketches of inventions such as flying machines
Michelangelo artist; created sculpture of David and painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Raphael painter; blended Christian and classical styles; famous works include The School of Athens and his portrayals of the Madonna
Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince, describing how to rule in an age of ruthless power politics
Martin Luther the German monk who triggered the revolt against the Roman Catholic church in 1517
Charles V the Holy Roman emperor who ordered Luther to recant his 95 Theses
John Calvin a reformer who preached predestination and living a saintly life
Johannes Gutenberg German blacksmith who invented the movable printing press. This started the Printing Revolution and is widely regarded as the most important event of the modern period.
Desiderius Erasmus Dutch religious scholar who called for the translation of the Bible into the vernacular
Thomas More English humanist who described an ideal society in Utopia
Indulgences in the Roman Catholic Church, pardons for sins committed during a person’s life
Henry VIII king of England; caused England to break away from the Catholic Church
Council of Trent appointed by the pope in 1545; over 20 years, advised about reforms to answer the Protestant challenge
John Calvin a reformer who preached predestination and living a saintly life
Predestination The idea that God had predetermined who would gain salvation
Theocracy a government run by religious leaders
Scientific Revolution A period of scientific thinking that helped bring an end to Europe's medieval past
Nicolaus Copernicus Polish scholar that proposed the heliocentric theory, or sun centered universe
Johannes Kepler German astronomer that used data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun
Galileo Italian inventor and astronomer that assembled the first telescope. He also realized that Copernicus's theory was accurate
Rene Descartes Frenchman that promoted human reasoning through a search for provable knowledge.
Isaac Newton English scientist that formed the brilliant theory which explained why the planets moved as they did. His theory relied on the idea of gravity.
Created by: Mr. Peirce