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Unit 3

The Postclassical Era: Chapters 13-16

TermDefinition
Muhammad a merchant until undergoing a "spiritual experience", led to him declaring Allah as god and called himself the last prophet of Allah, starting Islam
Arab person from Arabia
Muslim a person of Islamic faith
Islam religion mixing the elements of Arab, Jewish, and Christian beliefs, one true deity is Allah
Quran Islamic Holy Book
Dar al-Islam "house of Islam", areas of land where Muslims can practice their religion freely
Five Pillars Shahadah- profession of faith Salah- Prayer Zakat- Charity Sawm- Fasting during Ramadon Hajj- Pilgrimage to Mecca
Jihad "struggle", one sense jihad imposes spiritual and moral obligations on Muslims to go against vice and evil, and in another sense calls on Muslims to combat the "struggles" against ignorance and unbelief
Sharia moral/ethical behavior, after Muhammad's death, Islamic holy law, offered detailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of life
Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca, one of the five pillars of Islam
Ka'ba temple in Mecca, shrine for many deities
Caliph Religious/Political leader
Sunni people who believe that the leaders of the Islam religion just have to be followers of the Islamic religion
Shia people who believe that the leaders of the Islam religion should be a direct descendent of Muhammad
Hijra Muhammad's migration to Medina, serves as the start of the Islamic calendar
Umma community of the faithful (disciples of Muhammad)
Umayyad established after the assassination of Ali, brought stability to the Islamic community
Abbasid founded by Abu al-Abbas, principle source of authority until the Mongols in 1258. Not a conquering dynasty
Ulama legal/religious scholars
Qadis judges, base their decisions on Islamic law
Harun al-Rashid caliph during the Abbasid dynasty, most prominent ruler
Sultan supreme ruler or chief during the Abbasid empire (after the arrival of the Saljuq Turks
Sufi Islamic missionaries, sought a mystical, ecstatic union with Allah, emphasized devotion to Allah above mastery of doctrine
Ibn Rushd/Averroes philosopher, work helped to shape Islamic philosophy
"seal of the prophets" Muhammad called himself the "seal of the prophets", considered himself the last of Allah's prophets
Sui Yang Jian was ruler, imposed tight political discipline; most elaborate project undertaken during the Sui dynasty was the Grand Canal
Grand Canal constructed during the Sui dynasty, introduced trade to parts of Asia that were unable to obtain trade before
Tang Taizong second emperor of Tang dynasty, ambitious and ruthless, confucian ruler
Equal field system redistribution of land, purpose was to ensure and equal distribution of land and to avoid the concentration of property that cause social problems, worked for a little while
Uighers nomadic Turkish people, invited by the Tang to take out rebellious forces in China
Fast-ripening rice expanded food supply, Tang and Song China benefited enormously from the new food crops
footbinding the breaking and wrapping of young girls and women's feet to make them reallllyyy gross because that was important to them idk why
porcelain resource that was lighter, thinner and adaptable to more uses than pottery
gunpowder Tang and Song craftsmen invented gunpowder, by the mid-tenth century they were using gunpowder in bamboo "fire lances" a kind of flamethrower and by the eleventh century they had made sketchy bombs
printing became common during the Tang era, allowed copies of buddhist texts, confucian works, calendars, agricultural treatises, and popular works to be printed in large quantities
Chan/Zen Buddhism Buddhism that appealed to Chinese tastes and interests
paper money became available because of the shortage of coins, printed money provided a powerful stimulus to the Chinese economy
Neo-Confucianism influence of Buddhism as well as original Confucian values
Heian court
Silla Dynasty Tang emperor was the Silla's overlord, but the Silla were essentially an independent kingdom, opened up a relationship with China
The Tale of Genjii Japanese literary work, composed by Murasaki Shikibu, story relates the experiences of a fictitious imperial prince named Genji. Story offered a meditation on the passing of time and the sorrows that time brings to sensitive human beings
Samurai professional warriors, served the provincial lord of Japan, the lords relied on the samurai both to enforce their authority in their own territories and to extend their claims to other lands
Harsha King, came to rule at age 16, he was buddhist but allowed freedom of religion, temporarily restored unified rule in most of northern India and tried to revive imperial authority, his kingdom collapsed with his assassination and having no appointed heir
The Sind located outside the Islamic world and barley apart of the Abbasid caliph's control, remained under the jurisdiction of the caliphs until the collapse of the Abbasid dynasty in 1258, introduced Islam to Northern India
Sultanate of Delhi Islamic state, ruled from 1206 to 1526
Chola southern India, ruled the Coromandel coast from 850 to 1267 ce, high point: chola forces conquered Ceylon and parts of southeast Asia, did not rely on centralized state and were lenient with local and village institutions
Vijayanagar northern Deccan, Delhi sent two brothers to represent the sultan and execute court policies in the south, but the two brothers renounced Islam, returned to Hinduism, and established Vijayanagar, Vijayanagar fell to an alliance of Muslim kingdoms
Ceylon present day Sri Lanka, conquered by the Chola Kingdom about 1050 ce
Monsoons
Dhows and Junks Dhows were used by Indian, Persian, and ARab sailors and could carry 100 to 400 tons of cargo. Junks were used by Chinese and southeast Asians and could carry 1000 tons of cargo
Jati subcastes
Sufis missionaries of the Islam faith, encouraged a personal, emotional, devotional approach to Islam, very lenient in the ways the followers practiced Islam, it was such a positive version of religion it gave people a reason to believe
Angkor Wat place of monuments that was abandoned and lost until French missionaries rediscovered the site in the mid-nineteenth century
Yang Jian founder of the Sui dynasty who imposed tight political control from 589-604
Kingdom of Axum Christian kingdom in Ethiopia
Pope Gregory VII
chivalry
guilds
Created by: marcus.oistad