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LD AP World Ch 1 & 2

LD AP World I Chapter 1 & 2

TermDefinition
Cuneiform - A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words and symbols. - Originated in Mesopotamia in Sumer and Akkadia but later adapted to represent other languages of wester Asia. - Literacy confined to a small group of adm & scribes.
Cuneiform - Written on clay tablets - Symbols created by reeds - One of 3 original writing systems (other 2 are Olmec and Chinese)
Hammurabi - Ruler of Babylon (1792-1750 BCE). - Conquered many city-states in southern & northern Mesopotamia & is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. -
Hammurabi - Grew the Babylonian empire to control Mesopotamia by winning wars with adjacent city-states - Code was one of the first codes created in the world, was placed in the city center for everyone to see - "eye for an eye" but only within your social class
Hammurabi - Code and Surgeons - consider the various rewards and punishments for surgeons who either succeed or fail at their job in 1800 BCE
City-State - A form of decentralization where a small independent state about the size of a city rules over the urban center and surrounding agricultural territory.
City-State - A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic & Classical Greece, Phoenicia, & Early Italy.
City-State - A central city & other surroundings cities follow same law, similar governments, same religious practices, same language, and share the same way of life.
City-State - Developed in Mesopotamia because the land was reasonably flat & therefore prone to a lot of interaction. Although trade was more positive, con questing groups were a threat, the famers were called into the city walls for protection.
Babylon - Largest & most important city-state in Mesopotamia. Achieved particular eminence as the capital of the king Hammurabi in the 18th century BCE & Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the 6th century.
Babylon - Hammurabi stretched the borders by creating large aggressive military campaigns. - As a result, the city-state was able to become the capital of a short lived empire which was eventually taken by the Assyrians.
Scribe - A professional position reserved for men who had undergone the lengthy training required to be able to read & write using cuneiforms, hieroglyphics, or other early, cumbersome writing systems.
Scribe - A specialized person writes down documents by hand to record important information for the city - Starts the beginning of printing (ex: copying books, administering work, keeping of judicial, business, & historical records)
Scribe - First stories written about religion - Stated literature genres - Often had the status of elite
Fertile Crescent - Moist & fertile area in Western Asia - Located between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers - Extends from the Persian Towards the Eastern Mediterranean - Made 1st western civilization rise to power from water supplies that supported agriculture
Ziggurat - Massive pyramid stepped tower made of mud bricks. Associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamia cities, but its function is unknown. - Pyramid structure with a flat top (the higher the temple the closer to heaven)
Ziggurat - Believed to be built for a dwelling place for gods - Priests were only allowed to enter to meet the gods needs - Different than the Egyptian pyramids.
Hittites - Indo-European people who established governance north central Anatolia in 1800 BCE to 1200 BCE - Reached the height in 1400 BCE - Mastered the use of Bronze and were the first iron workers in the region
Hittites - As a result Iron technology began to get diffused throughout the region even all the way to the Indus by the time they collapsed c. 1200 BCE - Adopted cuneiform
Polytheism - The belief in more than one deities, gods and goddesses - Some gods were worshipped more than others - The gods portrayed individual skills, much like humans but with large personages
Polytheism - Formed to help explain the forces of nature - Certain people in early societies were thought to be only capable of communicating with various deities
Ethnocentrism - Judging a culture simply on your own values or standards - Language, behavior, and customs created these judgmental views - These different characteristics individualize each civilization but causes them to judge others
Ethnocentrism - Often civilizations will not only look down upon pastoral societies and call them barbaric but also call neighboring civilizations barbaric based upon their ethnocentric views
Deity - A supernatural being preferably a god or goddess - The people who lead the practice of worship of these gods and believe that they are able to communicate with deities - Ofter early societies were polytheistic
Sumerians - People who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of 3rd millennium BCE. Responsible for creation of fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture (i.e.: irrigation technology, cuneiform, religious conceptions, taken over by their Semitic success
Sumerians - Civilization of Sumer, drained the marshes for agriculture, developed trade, & established industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metal work, masonry & pottery. - Created in 4000-4500 BCE
Bronze - Called an alloy (mix of different metals) & with the development of this alloy became the specialization of metallurgy - Contains copper & tin (mainly copper) 90% copper and 10% tin
Bronze - Primary material from the "Bronze Age" which moved people away from using pure copper - Was durable & easy to craft with for swords, armor & tools were made from it - The Hittites had mastered use of bronze & that gave way to the Iron Age
Pharaoh - Ruler of Egypt with absolute power - The word Pharaoh comes from the word palace - Believed to be appointed by the gods. - Speak to the gods for his/her people - Ensured welfare & prosperity for the people of the Nile
Hieroglyphics - System of writing thought to have originally diffused from Sumerian cuneiform - Used symbols & basic pictures - Symbols represented sounds (phonics)
Hieroglyphics - Written on papyrus - Used by scribes & administrators - Used to keep records - One of the reasons that we know so much about Egyptian society due to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone which served as a turnkey to unlock the ancient text.
Papyrus - A reed like material found naturally on the banks of the Nile - After it is cut, it is unrolled before it is dried out and then pressed - Not considered paper since it is a solid piece of paper and it made from wood/leaf pulp
Papyrus - Hieroglyphics were written on them - Could also be used to make sails and ropes
Pyramid - A stone triangular structure - Rulers (Pharaohs) were buried inside with all of their possessions (even their pets and assistants) for their afterlife
Pyramid - Stone platforms were stacked on top of others to form a triangular prism (they served a different function that Ziggurats of Mesopotamia) - Slave labor helped build them
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro - Was one of the greatest cities of the Indus Valley - Civilization developed by 3rd millennium B.C.E - Housed 35,000 people & was 3.5 miles in diameter - Located in the northwest frontier of cultivation (modern day Pakistan)
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro - Center for the acquisition of raw materials like precious metals & stones from Afghanistan & Iran - Largest City in the Indus Valley Civilization - Located in the extensive flood plain of Indus River in contemporary Pakistan
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro - Dominates great flood plan of Indus - Surrounded by high-brick walls for protection against monsoon floods - When excavation these two cities, & standardization of building materials are evidence of central planning
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro - A lot of metal found there. Used for utilitarian tools & other common tools - People had a written language but it has yet to be deciphered
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro - Both cities were abandoned after 1900 BCE & archeologist believed this happened as a result of invasions and/or "systems failure" (government, economy & society had multiple problems perhaps caused by natural disaster).
Middle Kingdom - Ancient Chinese people believed that China was the center of the world - Ancient Chinese people did not travel out of China so they did not know of other civilizations
Middle Kingdom - Geography hindered their interaction (Gobi desert to the North, Himalayas to the west, Seas and Oceans to the East and South East, tropics to the South). - They were ethnocentric (race was superior to others)
Middle Kingdom - Attitude was the result of the fact that the early Chinese judged outsiders who came into contact with them, based upon their own view of "civilization"
Middle Kingdom - Since there were no substantial civilizations near the, they often came into contact with Pastoralists to the North and West.
Loess - yellow dust - winds from central Asia blew this yellow dust - this yellow dust was then blown to the Yellow River & gave the Yellow River Valley its fertile soil
Loess - yellow dust was then blown into Yellow (Huang He) River & were suspended in it, this gives the Yellow River its yellow hue and its name - it is very light, silt like
Shang - the family that dominated China from 1750 - 1045 B.C.E. - This is the dynasty that really started Chinese culture, first dynasty of many - These elite used bronze weapons for protection.
Shang - Due to the meandering of the Yellow River, the population covered a lot of area. It was hard for this family to maintain centralization so they let nobles have land on the condition that they would protect the King when needed.
Shang - During their reign many people used Oracle bones - Written documents were only found from the end of this dynasty - Main god of this was Di. Di lived in the skies & was in charge of unleashing storms. - Were polytheistic
Shang - Tombs of the elite were filled with valuable objects made of jade, metal, bone, ivory, shell & stone, some of these objects were musical instruments, jewelry , weapons & bronze vessels. These tools were there for the people's afterlives
Shang - Elite were warriors who rejoiced in warfare, hunting, gift exchanging, feasting and drinking - Was a form of decentralization called Fuedalism. These elite used bronze weapons for protection.
Oracle Bones & Shang Writing System - Were shoulder bones of cattle & bottom shells of turtles - People would drill holes in the bones/shells, then they would touch a red hot poker to it & it would crack, religious experts would come & "read" the cracks
Oracle Bones & Shang Writing System - Were the major form of divination in Chinese society during the Shang Dynasty - Writing on the bones were a way of communicating with ancestral spirits & gods
Oracle Bones & Shang Writing System - Writing on the bones was about the king, his court, religious practices, & a little about the Shang Society
Oracle Bones & Shang Writing System - Earliest bones were found from the 13th century B.C.E but the tradition may be older. - The writing system that was used for the oracle bones had several hundred characters in it - This was the ancestor of the system used in China & Eastern Asia today
Divination - Interpretation of signs to determine the future. - Used in ancient China, Greece, Rome, Celtic Europe & Mesopotamia - In Shang Dynasty people used oracle bones as a form of this
Nubia & Kush - a civilization in the Nile River Valley from 3100 BCE until 350 CE - Served as a passage for trade between tropical Africa & Mediterranean - Collapsed in the 4th CE because of shifting trade routes & attacks from desert nomads.
Kush - Egyptian name form Nubia
Nubia & Kush - Its location south of Egypt (also along the Nile) & in addition to its natural resources caused them to interact with Egypt & other Middle East civilization - Natural resources included: gold, copper & stones
Celts - People sharing common linguistics & cultural features; there was no Celtic "nation" & no centralized gov't - Originated in central Europe spread to many other parts of Europe organizing themselves into hundreds of small, loosely organized groups
Celts - First half of the millennium BCE - Traded with Mediterranean - Migrated to many parts of Europe - Males had long red hair, shaggy mustaches & loud deep voices - Warriors fought naked, very found of war
Celts - Women were strong & proud & appeared to have more equality than other peoples at the time but still specialized in similar crafts, food prep & rearing children
Celts - Tradition is still sting on the British Isles since most of Europe would eventually be conquered by Rome & Celts survived on the islands.
Druids - Class of religious experts - Conducted rituals & preserved sacred lore among some ancient Celtic peoples - Celtic priests in Gaul & Great Britain - Sometimes warfare serves as peace keeps & prevent feuding between groups
Druids - Judged cases involving Celts from different groups - Human Sacrifices - Memorized prayers, secret rituals, & traditions - Faced problems by the 1st CE as Rome grew & Roman leaders were worried about these priests' powers.
MesoAmerica - Region of geographical & climatic diversity found where modern day Mexico & Central America - Olmec came form there & is often known as the "mother" civilization
MesoAmerica - Later Groups would be Mayas, Toltecs & Aztecs - Olmecs began to cultivate corn, beans, squash which allowed form civilization to emerge.
Amerindian - known as American Indians or Native Americans - Traveled to the Americas via the land bridge during last Great Ice Age (now Bering Strait)
Olmec - Early MesoAmerican Civilization - Arose between 1200-400 BCE - Located in Mexico near the tropical coast - They were Amerindians who had advances in technology in their time period - Not centralized due to their terrain.
Olmec - Advances such as: Agriculture, trade and architecture - Each civilization center developed independently to exchange specialized products like salt, cocoa beans, & clay for ceramics - Sculpted giant heads representing each individual ruler
Shaman - People who believed they had the ability to make direct contact with supernatural powers - Studied stars to make calendars for events especially anything to do with food production
Shaman - Most likely responsible for developing a writing system that could have later influenced the Maya - They predicted when rain would come which was needed for agriculture.
Andean Region - Most of the region is the mountainous zone of the Andes which run close to the West coast of South America - Due to the distance from Mesoamerica, neither the Olmecs & Chavin traded with each other. - Modern day Peru & South
Andean Region - Altitude is so high here that it is difficult to have agriculture or human inhabitants, but they could farm (terrace farming - step farming - was utilized.) - This difficulty enforced specialized food production as the potato & quinoa
Chavin - First major urban civilization in South America - Capital Cavin De Huantar was 10,200 ft in the Andes
Chavin - Capital was located at the intersection of trade routes allowing city rules to prosper from trade & dominate their regional rivals - Produce corn, potatoes, quinoa, cocoa, fruit and had llamas
Quinoa - Grain grown by the Chavin society on the inlands of the civilization - Grown on terraces in South America (Peru)
Quinoa - As Chavin trade grew it started to link the inland Quinoa growers to the coastal economy - One of the few grains that is considered a super grain because of its high amount of protein.
Llamas - First bred in Peru in the Chavin civilization - The only domesticated animals in the Americas - Provided meat & wool & therefore helped further specialization - Increased trade because they made carrying goods easier (but couldn't' be ridden).
Created by: desilva13