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HGAP Key Terms C1-1

HGAP Rubenstein Ch.1 Key Issue 1 Key Terms

TermDefinition
Aristotle first person to demonstrate that Earths was spherical
Base lines east-west lines separating townships
cartography the science of mapmaking; the production of maps, including construction of projections, design, compilation, drafting, and reproduction
connections relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
distortion a change in the shape, size, or position of a place when it is shown on a map
Eratosthenes first person to use the word "geography" and calculated Earth's circumference within 0.5% accuracy; Head librarian at Alexandria during the 3rd century BC, was one of the early cartographers; IMPORTANT: accurate computation of circumference of Earth
GIS Geographic Information System; A collection of computer hardware and software permitting spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, used, and displayed
GPS Global Positioning System; A satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places
Idrisi -Built on Ptolemy's work (world map & geography text) -Accurate representation of world in map -Led academy of geographers to gather maps and go on scientific expeditions
Immanuel Kant -Compared geography's concern for space & history's concern for time -Differentiated between specific fields of knowledge -Influential Philosopher -Helped make geography a subject
Land Ordinance of 1785 Divided much of USA into a system of townships and ranges to facilitate the sale of land to settlers in the West
Local Diversity variety at a local scale; especially when compared to a globalized world
map projection any 3-D object (Earth) will project some distortion onto any 2-D object (map)
Mercator projection good for showing shape; A cylindrical map projection in which the meridians and parallels of latitude appear as lines crossing at right angles and in which areas appear greater farther from the equator
place a specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
principal meridians north-south lines separating townships
Ptolemy wrote "Guide to Geography"; codified basic mapmaking principles & prepared numerous maps; founded the geocentric theory, that everything in the universe revolved and moved around the Earth
remote sensing the acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from other long-distance methods
Robinson projection good for showing info. across oceans; neither equal-area nor conformal, abandoning both for a compromise. The meridians curve gently, avoiding extremes, but thereby stretch the poles into long lines instead of leaving them as points.
Carl Sauer provided the foundation for cultural geography through cultural landscape, cultural hearths and agricultural hearths
scale -relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole -for a real world-phenomenon: used as local, national, and global scale -3 ways to write it: written statement, fractional, or ratio
sections (of a township) 1 square mile each; 36 sections create a township
space physical gap or interval between tow objects
time zones -a region that has a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes -convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication the keep the same time, so time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions
township a square 6 miles on each side
Census Bureau The bureau of the Commerce Department responsible for taking the census
contour map designed to reveal the nature of local topography
Hecataeus lived in the late 6th and early 5th centuries B.E.C., a Greek scientist, he wrote a book about geography and illustrated a map of the countries and inhabitants of the known world
George Perkins Marsh -Some consider him the first environmentalist in America, and the precursor to the sustainability concept. "conservationist" is more accurate. -Published a book called Man and Nature in 1864: said man was doing great damage to the environment
Peters projection Introduced in 1974 by Arno Peters, and focuses on keeping landmasses equal in area. As a result, the shaped are distorted, and the map looks unfamiliar to viewers
lage scale large detail, small area
small scale small detail, large area
John Snow noted for developing the geographical study of disease
topography the natural surface of the land
Azimuthal Projection directions from a central point are preserved; usually these projections also have radial symmetry
cartogram map map where the size and shape of the landmass is determined by specific data
choropleth map a thematic map that uses tones or color to represent data as average values per unit area
connectivity the ease with which things can interact
Jared Diamond noted for developing the idea of environmental determinism
isoline map Map displaying lines that connect points of equal value; for example, a map showing elevation levels
model a 3-D representation of the Earth's surface or a portion of it
navigable suitable for transportation; passable
Alfred Wegener developed theory of Pangaea and continental drift
Created by: 227051