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WC - World Religions

World Cultures - Five Major Religions

TermDefinition
Hinduism Oldest of the 5 major world religions; main religion of India that developed from the beliefs of the Aryans; it does not trace itself back to Abraham
Buddhism Religion that was founded by the ancient Hebrews and originated in India; beliefs and practices are based on the teachings of Siddhartha Guatama (The Buddha)
Judaism Religion of the Jews that originated in Israel
Christianity Monotheistic religion in which one has faith in God and Jesus Christ
Islam Religion of the Muslims
Polytheism Belief in many Gods (Hinduism is a polytheistic religion)
Monotheism Belief in one God (Christianity, Judaism, and Islam are monotheistic religions)
Henotheism Belief of Hinduism in which there is one main god with many other gods representing qualities of that main god
Jesus Born a Jew and was the founder of Christianity - preached love and caring for those less fortunate
Siddhartha Guatama Better known as "The Buddha" and founder of Buddhism
Rabbi Jewish religious leader
Pope Leader of the Catholic church
Muhammad Arab prophet and founder of the Islam religion
Buddha Born Prince Siddhartha Guatama, the "enlightened one," who founded Buddhism
Hebrews Group of people who founded Judaism
Allah Arabic word for God
Brahman The highest and supreme God of Hinduism who resides in all things
Aryans Cattle-herding tribes who moved into the upper Indus Valley and established the Vedic culture of the Hindus
Catholic The only type of Christian when Christianity first began
Orthodox Jew The strictest of the 3 main types of Jews
Reform Jew The least strict of the 3 main types of Jews
Conservative Jew (Moderate) Jew; falls in between Orthodox (very strict) and Reform (least strict) Jew
Israel Homeland for the Jewish people
Torah Name of the Jewish holy book; first 5 books of a Christian's holy bible
Quran Holy book of the Muslims
Tripitaka An important written work of Buddhism
Vedas Collections of religious scriptures and other teachings of Hinduism
Gospels The first 4 books of the New Testament - Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John
Reincarnation Hindus' and Buddhists' belief that a person's spirit, upon death, is reborn into another bodily form; also known as samsara
Moksha Freedom from the mortal world; release from the cycle of death and rebirth (reincarnation/samsara)
Nirvana In Buddhism, it is the highest state that a person can reach - a state of enlightenment (desires and suffering go away) and release from reincarnation
Dharma In Hinduism, it is the duties or deeds that a person is expected to perform, which vary and depend upon the person's social standing/caste. In Buddhism, it means "the truth" (teachings of Buddha)
Karma In Hinduism and Buddhism, it is the (cause and effect) belief that the results of a person's actions in this and previous states of existence affect his or her fate in future existences (i.e., whether one is born in a higher or lower status)
4 Noble Truths A Buddhist philosophy indicating that: Suffering is a part of life; selfish desires lead to suffering; to get rid of suffering is to overcome desires; and follow the eightfold path to avoid and overcome desire
Eightfold Path A path preached by Buddha as the way to escape suffering
Ahimsa The principle of Hindus in which a person should do no harm to living things; non-injury
Bar Mitzvah A celebration that's held when a 13-year old Jewish boy accepts the rules and responsibilities of Judaism For girls (when they turn 12), this celebration is referred to as "Bat Mitzvah"
Puja An offering (like fruit or flowers) to a Hindu god or goddess
Shabbat Hebrew word for "Sabbath" referring to a weekly day of rest that's observed from sundown on Friday until nightfall on Saturday
Enlightenment Having an understanding or wisdom of ultimate reality and escaping the endless cycle of death and rebirth
5 Pillars The most important Muslim practices: a. Faith - Belief in only 1 God b. Prayer - Done 5x a day facing Mecca c. Alms - Giving charity to the poor/needy d. Fasting - Done during the entire holy month of Ramadan e. Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Alms Part of the 4th pillar of Islam in which one of wealth gives charity to help the poor and the needy
Hajj The last of the 5 pillars of Islam in which a Muslim makes a once-in-a-lifetime pilgrimage to Mecca (if physically and financially able to do so)
Crucifixion Method of execution whereby the victim is tied or nailed to a cross and is then left to hang until dead; this method was used to kill Jesus
Ramadan The 9th month of the Muslim year during which fasting (from sunrise to sunset daily for 1 month) is observed
Kosher Food that the Hebrew bible indicates can be eaten. For example, the Jewish do not eat pork or shellfish; nor do they mix milk and meat products together
Caste System A strict social and religious order of Hindu society - made up of priests, warriors, skilled workers, servants, and untouchables
Purgatory In the catholic religion, it refers to the intermediary state after (physical) death in which those destined for Heaven undergo purification in order to achieve holiness to gain entrance into the Kingdom of Heaven
Trinity 3 parts of 1 God - the father, the son, and the Holy Spirit
Synogogue Jewish place of worship
Diaspora The scattering of Jews to different parts of the world
Minaret A tall tower from where the call to prayer comes for Muslims
Moses Led the Jews out of Egypt
Therevada and Mahayana The two types of Buddhism
Bethlehem City where Jesus was born
Kaaba Black cube-shaped building in Mecca where Muslims go to pray during the Hajj
Sunni and Shia The two branches of Islam
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy The first 5 books of the Torah (part of the Old Testament)
CE Stands for Common Era - Used instead of BC and AD in newer textbooks as a method to identify a year because not everyone believes in Christ
Sati A former practice in India whereby a Hindu widow threw herself onto her husband's funeral pyre.
Mosque Muslim house of worship
Gregorian Calendar Most widely used civil calendar ( named after Pope Gregory XIII)
Ten Commandments A guide to proper ethical and moral behavior
Abraham Founder/Father of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Created by: tmgilbert