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Integumentary system

anatomy and physiology

functions of the skin keeps harmful stuff out of the body, retains water and electrolytes, protects internal structures,excretory functions, acts as a gland by synthesizing vitimin d, houses sensory receptors, plays a role in body temp regulation
skin is called integument or cutaneous membrane
2 layers dermis and epidermis
thin outer layer composed of stratified squamous, no blood supply, and can be divided in to 5 layers epidermis
lies on top of the dermis and has access to rich blood, cells are continuously dividing and pushing old cells to the epithelium stratum germativum
hardens thew skin cells and makes the skin water resistant keratin
surface layer of the epidermis composed of about 30 layers of dead flat keratinized cells stratum corneum
loss of about 500 ml through skin daily, can not be felt insensible perspiration
located under the epidermis and is composed of dense fibrous tissue dermis
stevens johnsons syndrome is caused by what an allergy to sulfa drugs
skin mirrors skin reveals disease processes in the body, drug reactions, chronic irritation, stress level, what is going on on the inside
not considered part of the skin, composed primarily of adipose tissue subcutaneous or hypodermis
2 roles of subcutaneous tissue insulates from extreme temp changes anchors the skin to underlying surfaces
cells that secrete a skin darkening pigment that is located deep with in the epidermal layer of the skin melanocytes
strains the surrounding cells causing them to darken melanin
occurs when cells fail to produce any melanin albinism
loss of melanin in certain areas of the skin vitiliago
yellow pigment carotene
cyanosis blue skin
blushing is caused by dilation of blood vessels
ecchymosis a black or blue area
the main function of sparse body hair to sense insects before the bite us
function of eyelashes and eyebrows protects eyes from dust and perspiration
hair growth is influenced by sex hormones testosterone and estrogen
excessive hair growth hirsutism
head hair is a collection of dead keratinized cells
red hair contains iron
shape of hair determines the appearance of hair round, oval, flat straight, wavy, curly
contraction of this muscle makes hair stand on end arrector pili
thin plates of stratified squamous that contain a hardened form of keratin nails
each nail has a root, free edge and nail body
caused by chronic heart and lung disease, indicates finger tips are receiving a poor oxygen supply clubbing
brittle nails are due to poor oxygenation; nutritional anemia
also referred to as oil glands found on the areas of the body that have hair sebaceous glands
oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands what does it do sebum helps waterproof hair and skin gradually decreases with age,
the cream cheese like substance on newborns secreted by sebaceous glands vernix caseosa
sweat glands, located on the dermis sudoriferous glands
2 types of sweat glands apocrine and eccrine
usually found in axillary and genital areas, associated with hair follicles, responds to emotion apocrine
in animals the excretions act as sex attractants pheromones (apocrine)
vaginal secretions of an ovulation female, cause a peak in testosterone copuline
The more numerous and widely distributed of the sweat glands, esp on the forehead neck back upper lip palms and soles eccrine glands
sweat secreted by eccrine glands plan and important role in temp regulation
found in external and auditory canal of ear cerminous glands
earwax cerumen
exocrine glans and maximally secrete how much per hour one gallon
temp is lowest in am
inner body parts tell core temp
skin and mouth tell shell temp
body temp is maintained by balancing heat loss and heat production this is called thermoregulation
heat is thermal energy and is produced by millions of chemical reactions with in the body
80% of heat loss occurs through20% through the skin, respiratory and excretory processes
4 means of heat loss Radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation
the amount of heat that can be lost is influenced by the amount of blood in the dermal blood vessels
heat is lost from a warm object to the surrounding cooler air radiation
loss of heat from a warm body to a cooler object in contact with the warm object conduction
loss of heat by air currents moving over the surface of the skin convection
occurs when a liquid becomes gas evaporation
water can not be evaporated from the skin on a humid day
the thermostat of the body, located in the brain hypothalamus
hypothalamus senses changes in body temperature and sends info to the skin and skeletal muscles
dilate with temperature elevation blood vessels
heat syncope fainting
most serious of heat stress, failure of the thermoreglatory mechanisms heat stroke
a baby can not------ because it has only one layer of subcutaneous fat shiver
generated more heat then the metabolisms of regular adipose tissue brown adipose tissue
burns are classified according to the depth and extent of the area burned
burns that are red painful and slightly swollen only epidermis is involved 1st degree
burns involve both epidermis and dermis, little damage to dermis, redness, pain, edema, and blisters 2nd degree
burn in which epidermis and dermis are both destroyed, painless because the sensory receptors have been destroyed 3rd degree or full thickness
burn injury is evaluated according to the rule of 9
dead burned tissue that forms thick, scab like layer over the burned surface eschar
can cut of blood supply to extremities, if it is around the chest it can prevent chest expansion and breathing, also secrets toxins in to blood eschar
eschar is slit in a checkerboard pattern to facilitate expansion escharotomy
Created by: lifeissweetxoxo
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