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WH 10: Unit 2

Age of Discovery & Impact of Global Trade

Age of Discovery Period of European exploration that began towards the end of the Renaissance era. Countries in the Old World (Europe) began exploring the New World (Americas)
Caravel A sailing ship that had triangle-shaped sails that could sail with and against the wind and was much stronger than ships before it
Compass Invention that was redesigned by the Portuguese that always pointed North and helped improve navigation
GOLD Exploration for monetary gain
GOD Exploration to spread religion and support the spreading of Christianity
GLORY Exploration for the purpose of having the most powerful nation
Prince Henry the Navigator The Prince of Portugal who was committed to the idea of exploration. He founded a school of navigation where cartographers, navigators, captains, and ship builders could work together and share ideas.
Vasco da Gama An explorer from Portugal who was the first person to travel around the horn of Africa on his voyage to India and back. It was a 27,000 mile voyage.
Conquistadors The name given to explorers from Spain who conquered much of the New World (the Western Hemisphere). Cortez & Pizarro would have been considered conquistadors.
New World The Western Hemisphere including the Americas
Christopher Columbus Explored for Spain and in the process of looking for a sea route to Asia he landed on an island in the Americas.
Ferdinand Magellan A Spanish explorer who is the first to successfully circumnavigate the globe
Hernando Cortez The Spanish explorer and conquistador who conquered the Aztec empire.
Francisco Pizarro The Spanish explorer and conquistador who conquered the Incan empire.
Treaty of Tordesillas A treaty signed by Spain & Portugal in 1494. This treaty divided the world into two areas. Portugal was given the right to colonize the Eastern Hemisphere (Asia/India) & Spain was given the right to colonize the Western Hemisphere (Latin & South America)
Jacques Cartier French explorer who in 1534 finds and names the St. Lawrence River and founded Montreal (Canada)
Francis Drake English explorer who was the second individual to circumnavigate the globe.
Trading Companies Incredibly powerful businesses that had the ability to mint money, sign treaties, & raise their own armies. The English & the Dutch (the people from the Netherlands) created these large trade companies to manage all of their overseas trade.
Catholic Missionaries Catholics who traveled to new nations in order to convert or persuade the indigenous population to adopt their religion
Indigenous people Native people of an area.
Columbian Exchange A simple exchange system in which the Eastern Hemisphere exported horses, cattle, smallpox, & manufactured goods to the West and the Western Hemisphere exported raw materials like corn, tobacco, etc. to the East.
Smallpox European disease that killed a great number of Native Americans who did not have a built up immunity to the disease when Europeans began exploring the Americas. Created the need for slave labor because it killed off so much of the native population.
Triangular Trade Complex trade pattern in which Europeans took manufactured goods to Africa, then took gold and slaves from Africa to the Americas, then brought raw materials from the Americas back to Europe
Plantation farms/system Large farms that were created to farm cash crops. In order to farm these large plantations natives of the Americas were used to do the back breaking work however smallpox killed to many of the natives, creating the need for a system of slavery.
Cash Crop Crops that are produced in large quantities for the purpose of being sold to merchants or others rather than for the purpose of feeding the farmer's family. Examples: tobacco, corn, sugar, potatoes.
Middle Passage A part of triangular trade when slave ships that went from Africa across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas full of slaves. The journey is known for the humiliating, unsafe and degrading conditions the slaves were kept in on the ships.
Mercantilism An economic practice that specified that the relationship between a mother country and its colony was always to provide money and wealth for the mother country.
Precious Metal exports Silver and gold normally taken from the American & South American colonies by the European mother countries (especially Spain)
Commercial Revolution A period of time known for the development of the modern banking system brought about by European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism.
Banks Businesses that make money by loaning the money of its members out to other individuals and charging interest on those loans.
Balkan Peninsula Southeastern Europe, the Ottoman Empire will extend to this point by 1453.
Constantinople/Istanbul City that had been the former eastern capital of the Holy Roman Empire was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. The Ottomans changed the name of the city from Constantinople (because it had been named after Christian Emperor Constantine) to Istanbul.
Taj Mahal Built in Mughal India by Shah Jahan as a tomb for his beloved wife.
Foreign enclave Special trading locations set up by the Chinese government that reduced the amount of interaction between the Chinese people and Europeans
Shogun Group of military leaders in Japan that have more power than the Emperor of Japan
Closed-Country policy A policy of isolation put into place in Japan in which no foreigners were allowed in or out of Japan. Put into place in particular to restrict the spread of Christianity in Japan. The policy lasted for approximately 200 years.
Rudder A tool that allowed ships to be able to harness wind and yet still move in the direction they wanted to move in.
Created by: thompsonce