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A&P 3, 4, 5

Test prep and terms for A&P chapters 3, 4, 5

What are the main parts of the integumentary system? hair, skin, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
What are the three layers of skin? Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous Layer
What is in the middle (Dermis) layer? Connective tissue, blood vessels, collagen
What is the term for a freckle or birthmark? Macule
What is the term for a sweat gland? Sudoriferous
What is the medical term for a black and blue mark? Ecchymosis
What is a 1st degree burn? reddened skin, minor swelling
What is a 2nd degree burn? epidermis and dermis damaged, blistering and adema
What is a 3rd degree burn? epidermis and dermis completely gone, no pain
What is sebum? oil
Where is it produced? Sebaceous gland
What is lordosis? swayback, excessive anterior lumbar curve
What is kyphosis? hunchback
What is scoliosis? lateral curvature
What are the main parts of the Axial skeleton? Head, neck, spine, chest, trunk
What are the main parts of the Appendicular skeleton? Pectoral girdle, upper extremities, pelvic girdle, lower extremities
What are the main types of fracture? Closed, Compound, Complete, Comminuted, Greenstick
What is a closed fracture? simple break, no skin breakage
What is a compound fracture? skin broken
what is a complete fracture? clean break
What is a comminuted fracture? shattered, splintered bone
What is a greenstick fracture? incomplete break
How many cervical vertebrae are there? 7
How many thoracic vertebrae are there? 12
How many lumbar vertebrae are there? 5
What is the most common joint in the body? Synovial
What is the term for an irregular heartbeat? Arrhythmia
What are arteries? Blood vessels that move blood away from the heart
What are veins? Blood vessels that move blood towards the heart
What is another name for the bicuspid valve? Mitral valve
What is a treadmill test? Stress test. Method of evaluating cardiovascular fitness
Where does the left atrium get blood from? Pulmonary veins
What is systemic circulation/circuit? Heart to tissues and cells and back to heart
What is pulmonary circulation/circuit? Between heart and lungs.
Which artery supplies blood to the heart? Coronary arteries
What is the node that regulates the beat of the heart? Sinoatrial node (pacemaker)
Oxygen exchange happens in what type of vessel? Capillaries
Alopecia baldness
aneurysm weakness in the wall of an artery resulting in localized swelling of the artery.
anhidrosis abnormal condition of no sweat
arrhythmia irregular heartbeat
arthralgia joint pain
arthr/o joint
arthritis joint inflammation
arthrodesis medical procedure to stabilize a joint by using the two bones together
arthroscopy process of visually inspecting the inside of a joint
ausculation listening to sounds within the body by using a stethescope
biopsy piece of tissue removed to be examined under microscope
Bx biopsy
cardiomyopathy disease of the myocardium
cost/o rib
cyanosis blueish tint to skin cause by deoxygenated blood
-dynia pain
erythema redness or flushing
erythroderma redness or flushing of skin
fibrillation abnormal quivering or contractions of heart
fibromyalgia pain in the muscles and soft tissues
HTN hypertension
Jaundice yellow cast in skin, mucous membranes, whites of eyes, caused by deposit of bile pigment
keloid formation of a raised thickened hypertrophic scar after injury/surgery
melanin black pigment of skin
myel/o bone marrow
myocardial infarction HEART ATTACK; condition caused by complete occlusion of coronary arteries
necrosis dead tissue
onych/o nail
orth/o straight
orthopedist dr. specialized in musculoskeletal system
pericardium sac around the heart
physiatrist physical therapy specialist
pil/o hair
podiatrist dr. specialized in feet and lower legs
pulse expansion/contraction produced by blood as it moves through the artery
rickets bone deformity caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency in early childhood
-rrhaphy suture
-stenosis narrowing
what are the organs of the cariovascular system? Heart, arteries, capillaries, veins
What does the circulatory system (CV system)do? delivers oxygen and nutrients to cells, picks up carbon dioxide and other waste from cells and delivers to lungs, kidneys, and liver for elimination
What circulatory systems is the CV divided into? Pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation
What is the average bpm of the heart? 60 - 100 bpm
What is the outermost layer of the heart? pericardium
What is the endocardium? inner most layer of heart, lines heart chambers, smooth thin layer reduces friction as blood flows through chambers
What is the myocardium? middle layer of heart, thick muscle, contraction of this layer develops pressure required to pump blood through blood vessels
What is the epicardium? outer layer of heart,forms the visceral layer of pericardial sac, fluid between layers of pericardial sac reduces friction as heart beats
What are the four chambers of the heart? Left and right atria, left and right ventricles
What are the four valves of the heart? Tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral (bicuspid), aortic
What is the pacemaker of the heart called? Sinoatrial node
What is lumen? the channel within blood vessels
angiogram record of a vessel
angiitis inflammation of a vessel
angioplasty surgical repair of a vessel
angiostenosis narrowing of a vessel
cardiorrhexis ruptured heart
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
murmur abnormal heart sound such as soft blowing sound or harsh click; also called a bruit
catheter flexible tube inserted in body to move fluids into/out of body
palpitations pounding, racing heartbeats
regurgitation a flow backwards; in CV system refers to backflow of blood through a valve
Aporcrine glands sweat glands; produce odor
embolus obstruction of blood vessel by blood clot that has broken off from a thrombus in another site
hemorrhoid varicose veins in the anal region
hypertension (HTN) high blood pressure
thrombus blood clot in a blood vessel
varicose veins swollen and distended veins
AFB Atrial fibrillation
AMI acute myocardial infarction
AS arteriosclerosis
ASD atrial septal defect
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
AV, A-V atrioventricular
BBB bundle branch block
BP blood pressure
bpm beats per minute
CABG coronary artery bypass
CAD coronary artery disease
cath catheterization
CC cardiac catheterization, chief complaint
CCU coronary care unit
CHF congestive heart failure
CoA coarcation of the aorta
CP Chest pain
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
DVT Deep vein thrombosis
ECC extracorporeal circulation
mmHg millimeters of mercury
What else if the dermis known as? Corium
anhidrosis no sweat
hyperhidrosis excessive sweat
hirsutism excessive hair growth
petechiae spots from minute hemorrhages under skin
purpura skin hemorrhage due to fragile blood vessels
cyst fluid filled sac under skin
laceration torn or jagged wound
macule birthmark freckle
abscess collection of pus in skin
papule small, solid raised spot smaller than 0.5 cm
pustule raised spot on skin containing pus
impetigo highly infectious bacterial infection with pustules that rupture and crust over
Kaposi's sarcoma skin cancer seen in AIDS patients; brownish purple lesions
culture and sensitivity (C&S) grows bacteria removed from infected area to identify infecting bacteria
allograft skin graft from one person to another
heterograft skin graft from an animal of another species
debridement removal of foreign material and dead or damaged tissue from wound
incision and drainage (I&S) making an incision to drain material such as pus
What do bones do? protect vital organs and store minerals
What are the four shapes of bones? Long bones, Short bones, Flat bones, Irregular bones
What is the majority type of bone in the body? Long bones
What is the long shaft of a long bone? Diaphysis
What is the open canal of the diaphysis called? Medullary cavity
what does the medullary contain? yellow bone marrow
What is another name for cancellous bone? Spongy bone
What is another name for compact bone? cortical bone
what is cortical bone? the outer layer of bones
Created by: zombieturtle