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Argument and logic

Systematic Theology

TermDefinition
Logic the study of methods and principles used in determining correct reasoning from incorrect reasoning.
Propositions statements that assert something is the case—or that it is not.
Argument/s a cluster of propositions that show how one claim “follows” the other (or not).
Conclusion a proposition is affirmed on the basis of other propositions of the argument.
Premise/s propositions that are affirmed or assumed as providing support for a conclusion.
Simplest Argument One premise One conclusion that follows from the premise.
Complex Argument Premises and conclusion mixed up more than one premise
Premise Indicators since because for as as shown by inasmuch as as indicated by may be inferred from/derived from/deduced from
Conclusion Indicators therefore hence so accordingly in consequence consequently as a result for this reason/for these reasons thus it follows that which allows us to infer that we may infer I conclude that
Fallacy Errors in reasoning Formal & Informal
Deductive Arguments Conclusion is guaranteed to be true if: -Premises are true -Argument is valid (no fallacies are committed)
Modus ponens Latin: “the mode of putting”
Inductive Argument an argument that is intended by the arguer merely to establish or increase the probability of its conclusion…the premises are intended only to be so strong that, if they were true, then it would be unlikely that the conclusion is false
Examples of inductive arguments Prediction Analogy Generalization Authority Signs Cause/Effect
Informal Fallacy errors in reasoning
Non Sequitur An inference/conclusion that does not follow from the premises/evidence
Ad Hominem “against/toward the human being”; attacking the person not the argument
Ad ignorantiam Arguing a claim is true just because it has not been shown to be false.
Strawman/Strawperson A caricature of an opposing view, exaggerated from what anyone is likely to hold, so that it is easy to refute.
Chronological Snobbery "our generation is better than others"
Circular Argument/Begging the Question Implicitly using your conclusion as a premise.
Red Herring Introducing an irrelevant or secondary subject, thereby diverting attention from the main subject.
Tu Quoque “you also?” A retort charging an opponent with being or doing what he/she criticizes in others.
Created by: janalyn_faith
 

 



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