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Baku International School AP World History 2014-15 Unit 2

Chandra Gupta II was the ruler right after Samudra he continued the work of Samudra and had similar plans 375-415 CE India 2 9/212 Lydia
Kanishka most powerful of the Kushan emperors under his rule; the Kushan empire expanded to Pakistan; Afghanistan; and northern India 78-103 CE India 2 9/212 Lydia
Vardhamana Mahavira teacher of Jainism was the main reason for the spread and the popularity of Jainism late 6th century BCE India 2 9/ Lydia
Siddharta Gautama a man who seeked enlightenment and later became Buddha he spread the idea of Buddhism 563 BCE India 2 9/ Lydia
Confucius Chinese thinker that taught principles of ren; li; xiao; and created Confucianism influenced Chinese society and education system of Han dynasty 551-479 BCE Lu; Northern China 2 8/182-185 Canfer
Mecius learned man that places importance on virtue of ren and acted as adviser passed around Confucian thought to important people 379-289 BCE China 2 8/185 Canfer
Xunzi man that emphasized li and advocated having strict standards and harsh punishments promoted a rougher and more pessimistic side of Confucianism that might have made people that thought Mecius was too optimistic change their minds 298-238 BCE China 2 8/185-186 Canfer
Laozi a sage that created Daoism created a whole new philosophy that many people accepted into their lives 600-501 BCE China 2 8/186 Canfer
Zhuangzi author of Zhuangi; that provided good reasons for Daoist views Made the daoist philosophy more popular and believable 369-286 BCE China 2 8/186 Canfer
Shang Yang chief minister that wrote The Book of Lord Shang; one of the most important legalist doctrines important contributor to the Legalist philosophy; that would restore unified China 390-338 BCE China 2 8/188 Canfer
Ban Zhao woman that wrote Admonitions for Women emphasized how obedient and submissive women had to act in Chinese society 45-116 CE Han Dynasty; China 2 8/197 Canfer
Han Feizi synthesized legalist ideas into well-argued essays defended Legalist thought and created one of first doctrines 280-233 BCE China 2 8/189 Canfer
Qin Shihuangdi creator of Qin empire; first Legalist ruler created a unified and stable China 260-210 BCE China 2 8/190-193 Canfer
Liu Bang emperor of the new Han dynasty lead way for one of the most influential chinese dynasties and centralized china 256-195 BCE Jiangsu; China 2 8/193-194 Canfer
Han Wudi emperor of Hans that ruled w/ administrative centralization and tried to expand his empire created Confucian education system and expanded empire to vietnam and korea 156-87 BCE Chang'an; China 2 8/195-197 Canfer
Maodun ruler of Xiongnu; who were nomadic peopple from Central Asia trained tough soldiers and made his clan powerful 234-174 BCE Mongolia 2 8/196 Canfer
Wang Mang man that served as regent for 2 year old boy; then took over "created a split in han dynasty and tried to impose ""socialist"" ways of splitting up land; split weakened future Han empire" 45 BCE- 23 CE China 2 8/200-201 Canfer
Luoyang throughout later Hand the capital was moved there cosmopolitan city important through chinese history 25-220 C.E China 2 8/194 Giorgia Monsi
Chang'an """costant peace"" city in xin dynasty" 25-220 C.E China 2 8/194 and 201 Giorgia Monsi
Huang He River Yellow River; 3rd longest river in asia important water source and transportation 500 B.C.E- 500 C.E China 2 8/190 GIorgia Monsi
Chang Jian River Yangtze river; longest river in asia provided transport and water supply 500 B.C.E- 500 C.E China 2 8/190 GIorgia Monsi
Han Empire imperial dynasty in China built centrralized bureaucracy; unified empire; 206 B.C.E- 220 C.E China 2 8/193-203 Giorgia Monsi
Xiongnu Confederation nomadic people; speaking turkish; around mongolia threatened han; han took over 210- 174 B.C.E China 2 8/194- 197 Giorgia Monsi
Gobi Desert largest desert n Asia north of China isolated and protected China 500 B.C.E- 500 C.E North of China 2 8/190 Giorgia Monsi
Korea part of Xiognu Confedertation was later taken over 210- 174 B.C.E north east of China 2 8/196 Giorgia Monsi
Confucianism ethical and philosophical system created by Confucius was taught and used in Zhou Dynasty 551 B.C.E- onwards China 2 8/182-184 Giorgia Monsi
Junzi Superior individuals these people were educated and conscienetious who were fair in the government 551 B.C.E- 484 B.C.E CHina 2 8/183 Giorgia Monsi
Ren attitude of kindness and benevolence one of the important confucian values fifth century B.C.E China 2 ch. 8/ pg. 184 Giorgia Monsi
Li sense of propriety one of the important confucian values fifth century B.C.E China 2 ch. 8/ pg.185 GIorgia Monsi
Xiao family in chinese society one of the important confucian values fifth century B.C.E China 2 ch. 8/ pg. 185 Giorgia Monsi
Dao the way of nature philosophical concept widely used by many; taught how to live in harmony China 2 8/186 Giorgia Monsi
Admonitions for Women humility;obedience; and devotion to husbants taught women the appropriate virtues 206 B.C.E- 9 C.E China 2 8/197 GIorgia Monsi
Daoism Philosophical; ethical; and religious traditions; emphazises living in harmony with dao big influence on China 6th century CHina 2 8/186-187 GIorgia Monsi
Legalism categorization of any writings; philosophical ways strenghtened and expanded 280-233 B.C.E CHina 2 8/188-189 GIorgia Monsi
Wuwei the doctrine of one to live simply and in harmony with nature Daoists recognized Wuwei as the chief of moral virtue sixth century B.C.E China 2 ch.8/ pg. 186 GIorgia Monsi
Classic of Filial Piety taught children to obey and honor parents importance of filiar piety; respect han dynasty China 2 8/ 197 Giorgia Monsi
Xiongnu nomadic people; speaking turkish; around mongolia threatened han; han took over 210- 174 B.C.E China 2 8/194- 197 Giorgia Monsi
Sericulture silk farming thrived in long distance trade relations with western places fourth millenium B.C.E China 2 8/198 Giorgia Monsi
Achaemenid First great Persian Empire Demonstrated how it was possible to build and maintain a vast imperial state; inspired later efforts to establish similar large-scale imperial states based in Persia and other Eurasian lands as well 558-330 B.C.E. Persia 2 7/160-166 Sevil A.
Seleucid Persian Empire founded by Seleucus Integrated much of the territory from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus River into a commonwealth in which peoples of different regions and ethnic groups participated in a larger economy and society 323-83 B.C.E. Persia 2 7/166 Sevil A.
Parthian Persian Dynasty that reached its peak under Mithradates I Devised an effective means to resist nomadic invasions; restored Persian traditions 247 B.C.E.-224 C.E. Persia 2 7/166-167 Sevil A.
Sasanid Persian Dynasty that would reach its peak under Shapur I and later fall to Arabic expansion Toppled the Parthians; introduced the cultivation of crops such as rice; sugarcane; citrus fruits; eggplant; and cottom 224-651 C.E. Persia 2 7/167-168 Sevil A.
Satrapy Administrative and taxasion districts governed by satraps Made it easier to govern the whole territory 521 B.C.E.-651 C.E. Persia 2 7/163 Sevil A.
Zoroastrianism Persian religion based on the teaching of prophet Zarathustra Reflected the cosmopolitan society of the empires; and it profoundly influenced the beliefs and values of Islam; Judaism; and Christianity Started sometime between late 7th- early 6th centuries B.C.E. Persia 2 7/173-176 Sevil A.
Ahura Mazda Main god of Zoroastrianism who represented truth and goodness Taught people honesty; and other good traits Persia 2 7/174 Sevil A.
Angra Mainyu An evil and malign spirit Engaged in a cosmic conflict with Ahura Mazda Persia 2 7/174 Sevil A.
Avesta Book that contains the holy writings of Zoroastrianism Shows teachings of Zarathustra Persia 2 7/174 Sevil A.
Gathas Zoroastrian hymns believed to be compositions by Zarathustra Shows teachings of Zarathustra Persia 2 7/173-174 Sevil A.
Cyrus First Achaemenid Emperor Launched the Persians' imperial venture 558-530 B.C.E. Persia 2 7/161-162 Sevil A.
Cambyses Cyrus's successor Conquered Egypt and brought its wealth into Persia 530-522 B.C.E. Persia 2 7/162 Sevil A.
Darius Greatest Achaemenid Emperor Extended the empire both east and west 521-486 B.C.E. Persia 2 7/162-164 Sevil A.
Xerxes Darius's successor Tried to impose his values on conquered lands which caused enormous ill will 486-465 B.C.E. Persia 2 7/164-165 Sevil A.
Alexander of Macedon Invaded Persia; sliced through the Persian Empire In 334 B.C.E. Persia 2 7/166 Sevil A.
Mithradates I Parthians' greatest conqueror Transformed his state into a might empire; extended Parthian rule to Mesopotamia 171-155 B.C.E. Persia 2 7/167 Sevil A.
Shapur I Sasanid Emperor Stabilized the western frontier and created a series of buffer states between themselves and the Roman empire 239-272 C.E. Persia 2 7/168 Sevil A.
Zarathustra A priest who became disenchanted with the traditional religion Created Zoroastrianism Late 7th- early 6th centuries B.C.E. Persia 2 7/173 Sevil A.
Arthashastra Kautalya's detailed polital guide on how to use power and correctly govern Chandragupta's land. Enabled a codified bureaucratic system trought the state 300 BCE India 2 9/209 Grace Gillis
Ahimsa Jainistic principle of non-violence to other living things or their souls Jainism's strict obedience to this made it an impractical religion; also present in many later religions 500 BCE India 2 9/218 Grace Gillis
Brahmins Priests; the highest caste This caste promoted social order Early centuries CE India 2 9/215 Grace Gillis
Kshatriyas Warriors and aristocrats These castes maintained social order in India Early centuries CE India 2 9/215 Grace Gillis
Vaishyas Peasants and merchants These castes maintained social order in India Early centuries CE India 2 9/215 Grace Gillis
Shudras Serfs These castes maintained social order in India Early centuries CE India 2 9/215 Grace Gillis
Jati Tight-knit subcastes of people with similar occupations Did similar jobs that a central government would; for example local affairs and outcasting; maintained social order Early centuries CE India 2 9/215 Grace Gillis
Jainism Religion made popular by Vardhamana Mahavira with roots in the Upanishads; had demanding; impractical ethics Popular in lower castes since Jains didn't believe in social distinctions 400 BCE India 2 9/218 Grace Gillis
Kushan Nomadic conquers who ruled in northern India and Central Asia; conquered by Guptas Played an impotant role in the silk roads 1-300 CE India 2 9/212 Grace Gillis
Buddhism Followers of the Buddha; they attampt or reach nirvana by following the dharma. Became popular in lower castes; gained Ashoka's support Beginning in 528 BCE India 2 9/220 Grace Gillis
Buddha Siddhartha Gautama; who became enlightened when he rejected worldly pleasures and led an ascetic life. He was the creator of Buddhism; which greatly affected their culture and social organization 563-483 BCE India 2 9/220 Grace Gillis
Mahabharata Dialogue between Arjun (a warrior) and Krishna (incarnation of Vishnu) This epic revealed Hindu values; inspired unquestioning devotion to Hinduism Early centuries CE India 2 9/225 Grace Gillis
Ramayana Love and adventure story adapted to support Hinduism This epic revealed Hindu values Early centuries CE India 2 9/225 Grace Gillis
Bhagavad Gita A short poetic work Illustrates Hindu expectations on individuals and promise of salvation 300 BCE-400 CE India 2 9/225 Grace Gillis
Artha Economic prosperity; one of the Hindu aims for human life that could lead you to Moksha Principles like this made HInduism a popular religion 300 BCE-400 CE India 2 9/226 Grace Gillis
Karma Buddhist priciples that you actions will affect your future Encouraged people to act responsibly 500 BCE India 2 9/ Grace Gillis
Persia Large empire that stretches from the Indus river to Anatolia and Egypt. It consisted of four sub-empires: Achaemenid; Seleucid; Parthian; and Sasanid. ruled for over a millenium and set a base for much of the trade and interaction throughout southwest Asia 558 BCE - 651 CE Persia 2 7/160 Lydia
Media Medes people along with the Persians were Indo-European speaking people who migrated to Persia from the steppes in central Asia they were organized people into clans with leaders and spread language and agricultural techniques 1000 BCE Persia 2 7/160 Lydia
Lydia prosperous kingdom in southwestern Anatolia the taking over of Lydia was a turning point for the development of the Persian Empire 6th century BCE Persia 2 7/159 Lydia
Macedonia modern-day region of the Greek peninsula Alexander of Macedon (Alexander the Great) came from here with his troops to take over Persia 808-168 BCE Persia 2 7/166 Lydia
Anatolia modern-day Turkey Lydia which was very wealthy and successful was located in Anatolia I dont know when this existed Persia 2 7/160 Lydia
Ionia region off the coast of Anatolia; closest to Izmir became part of Persia and was a connection with other Greek islands 7th - 6th centuries BCE Persia 2 7 Lydia
Ctesiphon imperial capital of the Persian Empire was at one point the largest city in the world 1st century BCE Persia 2 7 Lydia
Persepolis capital of the Persian Empire Darius intended for this city to be a monument and an imperial center 520 BCE Persia 2 7/162 Lydia
Pasargadae Persepolis was located close to this area 500 BCE Persia 2 7/162 Lydia
Seleucus chief of Alexander's army who took over after Alex died began the Seleucid Empire and adopted much of the Achaemenid traditions 305-281 BCE Persia 2 7/166 Lydia
Marathon region in Greece Battle of Marathon took place here 490 BCE Persia 2 7 Lydia
Guagamela region near Mosul; Iraq one of Alexander's wars were here 331 BCE Persia 2 7 Lydia
Parthia southeast of the Caspian Sea Parthian Empire of Persia 247 BCE - 224 CE Persia 2 7/167 Lydia
Bactria region on the Indus River to the Arabian Sea Parthian Empire of Persia 247 BCE - 224 CE Persia 2 7/168 Lydia
Gandhara region in modern Pakistan was under Persian control during the Achaemenid Empire 326 BCE Persia 2 7 Lydia
Persian Wars a series of wars between the Achaemenid empire and Ionian Greeks; who received help from mainland Greece the conflict between the two powers caused the weakening of many cities and disturbed trade and commerce 500-479 BCE Anatolia; Ionia; Athens 2 10/239-240 Canfer
Peloponnesian War bitter civil war between Athens and Sparta and the poleis supporting them caused the weakening of the poleis; which lead to the power of Macedon 431-404 BCE Greece 2 10/240 Canfer
Marathon city in Attica; Greece where the Battle of Marathon was held; in which heavily outnumbered athenians defeated the persians 490 BCE Marathon 2 10/ Canfer
Salamis city very close to Athens where the Greeks defeated Persian navy in second attack 480 BCE Salamis 2 10/240 Canfer
Antigonid Empire one of the three Hellenistic empires; covers Macedon and much of the Greek peninsula trade flourished in Greek city states during this time and some conflicts arose 306-168 BCE Modern-day Greece; Macedonia 2 10/244 Canfer
Ptolemaic Empire Hellenistic empire in Egypt; covering the North portion of the NIle Valley grew rich because of their monopolies on industries and monitored crop growth and taxes without interfering with culture 305-30 BCE Egypt 2 10/244 Canfer
Seleucid Empire Hellenistic empire taking up space similar to Achaemenid empire - much of Bactria; Mesopotamia; west of Anatolia caused the migration of Greeks to these zones; improved trade; and created urbanized western society here 312-63 BCE Mesopotamia; Bactria; Anatolia 2 10/245 Canfer
Epicureans a philosophy created by Epicurus that thought internate tranquility was the greatest good helped individuals cope with stresses of Hellenistic empire founded in 307 BCE Greece 2 10/254 Canfer
Skeptics philosophy that didn't take positions in moral; political; and social issues because they didn't think certain knowledge existed allowed people stop worrying about fights and helped them seek peace 360 BCE-ish (Pyrrho) Greece 2 10/254 Canfer
Stoics philosophy that taught ppl to help others and that that was how you escaped pressures created a strong moral fiber within Greek society 3rd century BCE Greece 2 10/254 Canfer
Demeter the goddess of grain in Greek mythology allowed women to take part in activity; as they were not allowed to take part in politics; etc N/E Greece 2 10/253 Canfer
Dionysus the god of wine created great sense of communitya nd inspired Greece's culture of tragic/comedic drama N/E Greece 2 10/253-254 Canfer
Zeus grandson of the Earth and Sky gods; main god was most important god; people were scared of his temper; and also managed other gods N/E Greece 2 10/253 Canfer
Apollo promoted wisdom and justice sparked philosophical thought N/E Greece 2 10/253 Canfer
Socrates an Athenian man who wished to understand human affairs """creator"" of philosophical thought in Greece; inspired thoughts that honest living was better than other kinds of living" 470-399 BCE Athens; Greece 2 10/250 Canfer
Plato disciple of Socrates that used some of his beliefs to create his own created Forms or Ideas; which said our world was an imperfect copy of another one 430-347 BCE Athens; Greece 2 10//250-252 Canfer
Aristotle disciple of Plato that believed he could uncover the world by using his senses revised logical appeals to philosophy; such as syllogism; made people believe it more 384-322 BCE Macedonia; then Greece 2 10/252 Canfer
Philip of Macedon king of Macedon that conquered much further than Greece used strong army and took advantage of Pelopennesian wars to take over Greece 359-336 BCE Macedon 2 10/241 Canfer
Alexander of Macedon son of Philip of Macedon; his successor expanded his empire to Ionia; Anatolia;Syria; Egypt; Mesopotamia; Persia; and India Macedon 2 10/241-242 Canfer
Solon aristocrat that mediated between poor and rich forged compromise - aristocrats could keep lands; but debts cancelled and debt slavery outlawed; representation for coomon people 638-558 BCE Greece 2 10/237 Canfer
Pericles statesman of Athens with huge influence under his rule; Athens became sophisticated poleis flourishing w/ communities; because of him opening up job opportunities 2 10/237 Canfer
Seleucus creator of the Seleucid empire set up an empire that brought Greek culture and trade all the way to Bactria 358-281 BCE Macedonia; Seleucid Empire 2 10/246 Canfer
Sappho female poet that composed 9 volumes of prose reflected Greek thought and positions of women in society 600 BCE Greece 2 10/248 Canfer
Arrian served in armies and composed texts of military history his works on Alexander tell us a lot about him nowadays 150 CE Greece 2 10/243 Canfer
Antigonus former satrap; established Antigonid empire his empire's trade flourished under his rule; and also caused migrations to Seleucid reign = 306-301 BCE Greece/Macedon 2 10/245 Canfer
Ptolemy creator of the Ptolemaic empire his empire became the wealthiest due to crops; monopolies; and tax; and Alexandria became buzzing trade hub reign = 305-283 BCE Egypt 2 10/244 Canfer
Aeschylus first of three tragedy-play writers explored possibilities and limitations to human action and inspired philosophical thought/worship 525-456 BCE Greece 2 10/254 Canfer
Sophocles one of the most prominent three tragedy-play writers in Athens affected drama development (ie: addition of third actor) and worked with audience interpretation Greece 2 10/255 Canfer
Euripides another one of the tragedy-play writers included women and themes of mythology in his plays 484-406 BCE Greece 2 10/256 Canfer
Aristophanes a comic dramatist in Athens dealt with issues of humanity and behaviour; made fun of political ppl; which could influence public 446-486 BCE Greece 2 10/257 Canfer
Plebeians Commoners By threatening to leave; they were eventually represented politically by tribunes Around 500 BCE Rome 2 11/262 Grace G
Patricians Heriditary aristocrats and wealthy classes Dominated politics by comprising the majority of the Senate Around 500 BCE Rome 2 11/262 Grace G
Pax Romana Long peroid of peace throughout the Roman empire under Augustus's rule Facilitated trade; communication; and political integration Beginning around 200 BCE Rome 2 11/268 Grace G
Consul One of two leaders elected by mostly patricians to control military and civil power for a one-year term Use of consuls was a major step towards democracy; limited the number of rebellions Beginning in 509 BCE Rome 2 11/262 Grace G
Tribune Representatives of the plebians who could intervene and veto unfair actions Slowly led to greater political participation and representation of all classes Beginning in 500 BCE Rome 2 11/262 Grace G
Latifundia Large plantations whose crops (often grains) were destined for export; produced surpluses These surpluses promted trade and specialized crops for certain regions Beginning in 500 BCE Rome 2 11/272 Grace G
Punic Wars Three conflicts against Carthage; Rome eventually won; burning Carthage Increased Rome's wealth; fueling further expansion 264-146 BCE Rome 2 11/264 Grace G
Stoicism Greek philosophy involving a universal moral code; Cicero adapted this to Roman life This philosophy among the wealthy streesed universal codes above local codes 100 BCE Rome 2 11/277 Grace G
Judaism Jewish descendants David and Solomon who worshipped their own true God Yahweh Jews refused to participate in state cults and sometimes pay taxes; this led to rebellions 300 BCE-100 CE Rome 2 11/280 Grace G
Essenes New sect of Jews in Palestine looking for freedom from Roman rule Created a strong community where they could worship freely 100 BCE Rome/Palestine 2 11/280 Grace G
Mithraism Worshipped Mithras (originally Zoroastrian but became god of military values in Rome); it was popular in males who valued purposeful moral behavior Developed sense of community Early centuries CE Rome 2 11/278 Grace G
Christianity Followers of Jesus; believing He is the savior ; became official religion of the Roman empire Unified Rome and gave an ethical code to live by Beginning in 1st century CE Rome 2 11/280 Grace G
Etruscans Dominated Italy; traded actively; specialized in metallurgy and a large fleet Influenced Rome's monocratic government; construction; and trade opportunities Between 800-400 BCE Rome/Mediterranean 2 11/261 Grace G
Carthaginians People from the wealthy trade city and port of Carthage in northern Africa Their dominance made them a threat to Rome 400-200 BCE High point Rome/Carthage 2 11/264 Grace G
Term Definition Importance Period/Date Region/Area Unit Chapter/Pages Creator/Editor
Chandragupta Maurya an adventurer who created the basis to the Mauryan Empire 320s BCE India 2 9/208-209 Lydia
Kautayla Chandragupta's advisor Chandragupta and Kautayla together built a bureaucratic administrative system 4th century BCE India 2 9/209 Lydia
Ashoka Chandragupta's grandson during Ashoka's reign was the highest point in the Mauryan empire 268-232 BCE India 2 9/210 Lydia
Chandra Gupta created a powerful kingdom by forging alliances with powerful Ganges people this was the foundation for a new empire 320 CE India 2 9/212 Lydia
Samudra Gupta one of Chandra Gupta's successors made Magadhan capital of Pataliputra the center of the empire again 335-375 CE India 2 9/212 Lydia
Created by: BISAPW